European Journal of Chemistry 2010, 1(4), 252-258 | doi: | Get rights and content


Chitosan as an eco-friendly heterogeneous catalyst for Michael type addition reactions. A simple and efficient route to pyridones and phthalazines

Khaled Khalil (1) , Hamad Al-Matar (2,*) , Mohamed Elnagdi (3)

(1) Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, EG-12613, Egypt
(2) Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Kuwait, KW-13060, Kuwait
(3) Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Kuwait, KW-13060, Kuwait
(*) Corresponding Author

Received: 21 Jul 2010 | Revised: 30 Nov 2010 | Accepted: 25 Jul 2010 | Published: 22 Dec 2010 | Issue Date: December 2010


Depending on their nature, nitrile activated methylene compounds add readily to β-enaminones in presence of chitosan to yield dienamides, pyridones or pyridine thiones. The dienamides, formed in this manner, can be readily converted to pyridones by stirring in refluxing acetic acid. Reaction of pyridazinones with a mixture containing benzaldehyde, malononitrile and chitosan affords phthalazines that are also produced by reaction of pyridazinone with benzylidene-malononitrile.



Chitosan; Enaminone; Michael addition; Pyridone; Pthalazine; Benzylidene

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DOI: 10.5155/eurjchem.1.4.252-258.211

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How to cite

Khalil, K.; Al-Matar, H.; Elnagdi, M. Eur. J. Chem. 2010, 1(4), 252-258. doi:10.5155/eurjchem.1.4.252-258.211
Khalil, K.; Al-Matar, H.; Elnagdi, M. Chitosan as an eco-friendly heterogeneous catalyst for Michael type addition reactions. A simple and efficient route to pyridones and phthalazines. Eur. J. Chem. 2010, 1(4), 252-258. doi:10.5155/eurjchem.1.4.252-258.211
Khalil, K., Al-Matar, H., & Elnagdi, M. (2010). Chitosan as an eco-friendly heterogeneous catalyst for Michael type addition reactions. A simple and efficient route to pyridones and phthalazines. European Journal of Chemistry, 1(4), 252-258. doi:10.5155/eurjchem.1.4.252-258.211
Khalil, Khaled, Hamad Al-Matar, & Mohamed Elnagdi. "Chitosan as an eco-friendly heterogeneous catalyst for Michael type addition reactions. A simple and efficient route to pyridones and phthalazines." European Journal of Chemistry [Online], 1.4 (2010): 252-258. Web. 1 Dec. 2020
Khalil, Khaled, Al-Matar, Hamad, AND Elnagdi, Mohamed. "Chitosan as an eco-friendly heterogeneous catalyst for Michael type addition reactions. A simple and efficient route to pyridones and phthalazines" European Journal of Chemistry [Online], Volume 1 Number 4 (22 December 2010)

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