European Journal of Chemistry 2012, 3(2), 235-240 | doi: https://doi.org/10.5155/eurjchem.3.2.235-240.460 | Get rights and content






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Synthesis of ethylene carbonate from cyclocondensation of ethylene glycol and urea over ZnO•Cr2O3 catalyst system controlled by co-precipitation method


Sheenu Bhadauria (1) , Samidha Saxena (2) , Rajendra Prasad (3) , Prabhakar Sharma (4) , Rajendra Prasad (5) , Reena Dwivedi (6,*)

(1) Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Sciences, Devi Ahilya University, Indore, 452001, India
(2) Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Sciences, Devi Ahilya University, Indore, 452001, India
(3) Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Sciences, Devi Ahilya University, Indore, 452001, India
(4) Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Sciences, Devi Ahilya University, Indore, 452001, India
(5) Department of Chemistry, Amravati University, Amravati, 444602, India
(6) Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Sciences, Devi Ahilya University, Indore, 452001, India
(*) Corresponding Author

Received: 12 May 2011 | Accepted: 08 Mar 2012 | Published: 30 Jun 2012 | Issue Date: June 2012

Abstract


ZnO·Cr2O3 catalyst has been synthesized by low temperature, pH controlled co-precipitation route and characterized employing techniques of Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area measurement, ammonia desorption technique, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These characterizations reveal the catalyst to possess ZnO·ZnCr2O4 composition. The catalysts have been tested for their performance for the first time, in the synthesis of ethylene carbonate from cyclocondensation of ethylene glycol and urea. Effect of catalyst concentration, temperature and molar ratio of reactants has been studied to obtain the optimum conversion and selectivity of ethylene glycol and urea to ethylene carbonate. A maximum yield of 85.75% of ethylene carbonate was obtained at a temperature of 423 K and urea: ethylene glycol molar ratio of 1:1.5. A tentative mechanism of the reaction is proposed on the basis of analysis of reactants, products and modeling of the transition state for the reaction under density function theory using Gaussian09W software. Our studies suggest a consecutive mechanism for the reaction. In the first step, urea and ethylene glycol react to produce 2-hydroxyethyl carbamate, which undergoes further reaction to produce ethylene carbonate (EC) and ammonia.

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Keywords


Urea; Zinc chromite; Ethylene glycol; Co-precipitation; Cyclocondensation; Ethylene carbonate

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DOI: 10.5155/eurjchem.3.2.235-240.460

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Funding information


University Grants Commission-Department of Atomic Energy- Consortium for scientific Research (UGC-DAE-CSR), Indore, India; Department of Science and Technology (DST), New Delhi and Madhya Pradesh Council of Science & Technology (MPCST), Bhopal, India

Citations

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How to cite


Bhadauria, S.; Saxena, S.; Prasad, R.; Sharma, P.; Prasad, R.; Dwivedi, R. Eur. J. Chem. 2012, 3(2), 235-240. doi:10.5155/eurjchem.3.2.235-240.460
Bhadauria, S.; Saxena, S.; Prasad, R.; Sharma, P.; Prasad, R.; Dwivedi, R. Synthesis of ethylene carbonate from cyclocondensation of ethylene glycol and urea over ZnO•Cr2O3 catalyst system controlled by co-precipitation method. Eur. J. Chem. 2012, 3(2), 235-240. doi:10.5155/eurjchem.3.2.235-240.460
Bhadauria, S., Saxena, S., Prasad, R., Sharma, P., Prasad, R., & Dwivedi, R. (2012). Synthesis of ethylene carbonate from cyclocondensation of ethylene glycol and urea over ZnO•Cr2O3 catalyst system controlled by co-precipitation method. European Journal of Chemistry, 3(2), 235-240. doi:10.5155/eurjchem.3.2.235-240.460
Bhadauria, Sheenu, Samidha Saxena, Rajendra Prasad, Prabhakar Sharma, Rajendra Prasad, & Reena Dwivedi. "Synthesis of ethylene carbonate from cyclocondensation of ethylene glycol and urea over ZnO•Cr2O3 catalyst system controlled by co-precipitation method." European Journal of Chemistry [Online], 3.2 (2012): 235-240. Web. 1 Dec. 2020
Bhadauria, Sheenu, Saxena, Samidha, Prasad, Rajendra, Sharma, Prabhakar, Prasad, Rajendra, AND Dwivedi, Reena. "Synthesis of ethylene carbonate from cyclocondensation of ethylene glycol and urea over ZnO•Cr2O3 catalyst system controlled by co-precipitation method" European Journal of Chemistry [Online], Volume 3 Number 2 (30 June 2012)

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