European Journal of Chemistry 2010, 1(4), 246-251. doi:10.5155/eurjchem.1.4.246-251.156

Proton-controlled mechanism for coupling among proton production/consumption reactions in CaCO3-oversaturated waters or calcifying organism-inhabited seawaters


Kazuhiko Ichikawa (1,*)

(1) Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, JP-060-0810, Japan
(*) Corresponding Author

Received: 08 Jun 2010, Accepted: 18 Oct 2010, Published: 22 Dec 2010

Abstract


The CaCO3-oversaturated weakly basic water at around pH=8 was proved by the novel simple equations (e.g. log [Ca2+] = -2pH -logPCO2 + 9.94) derived from material energetics and proton-controlled mechanism for coupling among proton/hydroxide production/consumption reactions (e.g. CaCO3 + H+↔HCO3- + Ca2+) in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide. The cyclic/oscillating variation between pH=8.3 and 8.0 for marine calcifying organism-inhabited paleo and preindustrial seawaters was elucidated by applying the improved proton-controlled mechanismto biochemical reactions in cytoplasts or host tissues of marine calcifying phytoplanktons and phytosymbiont-bearing corals/zooplanktons. It was revealed that photosynthesis enhances biogenic calcificationand vice versa, as the thicker growth of CaCO3-made outer casings causes proton production and photosynthesis continuously needs protons to produce CO2(aq) from major HCO3-. The correlation between calcification and photosynthesis creates a number of stationary states with respect to oscillating pH variation. Marine biogenic calcification reaction releases no CO2 to atmosphere and is no positive feedback to rising atmospheric PCO2 levels.

1_4_246_251_800


Keywords


Acid attack; Calcifying organism; Phytosymbiont; Proton mechanism; CaCO3-oversaturated water pH; Seawater pH

Full Text:

PDF /    /


DOI: 10.5155/eurjchem.1.4.246-251.156

Article Metrics


This Abstract was viewed 501 times | PDF Article downloaded 129 times

References

[1]. Ichikawa, K. Chemistry a European J. 2007, 13, 10176-10181.
doi:10.1002/chem.200700166
PMid:17910015

[2]. Hönisch, B.; Hemming, N. G. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 2005,236, 305-314.
doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.04.027

[3]. Feely, R.; Sabine, C. L.; Lee, K.; Berelson, W.; Kleypas, W. J.; Fabry,V. J.; Millero, F. Science2004, 305, 362-366.
doi:10.1126/science.1097329
PMid:15256664

[4]. Petit, J. R.; Jouzel, D.; Raynaud, N. I.; Barkov, J. M.; Barnola, I.; Basile, M.; Bender, J.; Chappellaz, M.; Davis, G.; Delaygue, M.; Delmotte, V. M.; Kotlyakov, M.; Legrand, V. Y.; Lipenkov, C.; Lorius, L.; Pepin, C.; Ritz, E.; Saltzman, M.; Stievenard, D.Nature 1999, 399, 429-436.
doi:10.1038/20859

[5]. Barker, S.; Higgins, J. A.; Elderfield, H. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A2003, 361, 1977-1999.
doi:10.1098/rsta.2003.1238
PMid:14558905

[6]. Riebesell, U. J. Oceanography2004, 60, 719-729.

[7]. Hemming, N. G.; Hanson, G. N. Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 1992, 56, 537-543.
doi:10.1016/0016-7037(92)90151-8

[8]. Pelejero, C.; Calvo,E.; McCulloch, M. T.; Gaga, M. K.; Lough, J. M.; Opdyke, B. N. Science2005, 309, 2204-2207.
doi:10.1126/science.1113692
PMid:16195458

[9]. Shacklerton, N. Science2000, 289, 1897-1902.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1897
PMid:10988063

[10]. Barker, S.; Elderfield, H. Science2002, 297, 833-836.
doi:10.1126/science.1072815
PMid:12161653

[11]. Greau, T. F. Biol. Bull.1959, 116, 59-75.
doi:10.2307/1539156

[12]. Moya, A.; Tambutte,S.; Bertucci, A.; Tambutte, E.; Lotto,E.; Vullo, D.; Supuran, C. T.; Allemand, D.; Zoccola, D. J. Biol. Chem. 2008, 283, 25475-25484.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M804726200
PMid:18617510

[13]. Miyamoto, H.; Miyashita, T.; Okushima, M.; Nakano,M.; Morita, S. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA1966, 93, 9657-9659.
doi:10.1073/pnas.93.18.9657

[14]. Nakata, K.; Shimomura, N.; Shiina, N.; Izumi, M.; Ichikawa, K. J. Inorg. Biochem.2002, 89, 255-266.
doi:10.1016/S0162-0134(01)00419-6

[15]. Ichikawa, K.; Shimomura, N.; Yamada, M.; Ohkubo, N. Chem. Euro. J. 2003, 9, 3235- 3241.
doi:10.1002/chem.200204534
PMid:12866067

[16]. Dou, Z.; Heinhorst, S.; Williams, E. B.; Murin, C. D.; Shively, J. M.; Cannon, G. C. J. Biol. Chem.2008, 283, 10377-10384.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M709285200
PMid:18258595

[17]. Yeates, T. O.; Kerfeid, C. A.; Heinhorst, S.; Cannon, G. C.; Shively, J. M. Nature Rev. Microbio. 2008, 6, 681-691.
doi:10.1038/nrmicro1913
PMid:18679172

[18]. Marsh, E.; Chang, D. K.; King, G. C. Biol. Chem.1992, 267, 20507-20512.

[19]. Nimer,N. A.; Merrett, M. J. New Phytol. 1993, 123, 673-677.
doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1993.tb03776.x

[20]. Marsh, M. E. Comp.Biochem. Phys. A 2003, 136, 743-754.
doi:10.1016/S1096-4959(03)00180-5

[21]. Trimborn, S.; Langer, G.; Rost, B. Limnol. Oceanogr.2007, 52, 2285–2293.
doi:10.4319/lo.2007.52.5.2285

[22]. Bernhard, J. M. Science2003, 299, 861-861.
doi:10.1126/science.1077314
PMid:12574621

[23]. Goiran, C.; Al-Moghrabi, S.; Allemand, D.; Jaubert, J. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.1996, 199, 207-225.
doi:10.1016/0022-0981(95)00201-4

[24]. Stanley, Jr. G. D. Science 2006, 312, 857-858.
doi:10.1126/science.1123701
PMid:16690848

[25]. Fabry, V. J. Science2008, 320, 1020-1022.
doi:10.1126/science.1157130
PMid:18420898


How to cite


Ichikawa, K. Eur. J. Chem. 2010, 1(4), 246-251. doi:10.5155/eurjchem.1.4.246-251.156
Ichikawa, K. Proton-controlled mechanism for coupling among proton production/consumption reactions in CaCO3-oversaturated waters or calcifying organism-inhabited seawaters. Eur. J. Chem. 2010, 1(4), 246-251. doi:10.5155/eurjchem.1.4.246-251.156
Ichikawa, K. (2010). Proton-controlled mechanism for coupling among proton production/consumption reactions in CaCO3-oversaturated waters or calcifying organism-inhabited seawaters. European Journal of Chemistry, 1(4), 246-251. doi:10.5155/eurjchem.1.4.246-251.156
Ichikawa, Kazuhiko. "Proton-controlled mechanism for coupling among proton production/consumption reactions in CaCO3-oversaturated waters or calcifying organism-inhabited seawaters." European Journal of Chemistry [Online], 1.4 (2010): 246-251. Web. 17 Sep. 2019
Ichikawa, Kazuhiko. "Proton-controlled mechanism for coupling among proton production/consumption reactions in CaCO3-oversaturated waters or calcifying organism-inhabited seawaters" European Journal of Chemistry [Online], Volume 1 Number 4 (22 December 2010)

DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.5155/eurjchem.1.4.246-251.156

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c)




© Copyright 2019  Atlanta Publishing House LLC All Right Reserved.

The opinions expressed in all articles published in European Journal of Chemistry are those of the specific author(s), and do not necessarily reflect the views of Atlanta Publishing House LLC, or European Journal of Chemistry, or any of its employees.

Copyright 2019 Atlanta Publishing House LLC. All rights reserved. This site is owned and operated by Atlanta Publishing House LLC whose registered office is 4614 Lavista road, Tucker, GA, 30084, USA. Registered in USA.