European Journal of Chemistry

Liquid-liquid extraction of Zr(IV) from sulphuric acid medium using tri-n-octyl amine in kerosene


Main Article Content

Jaykishon Swain
Amit Sahoo
Bhikari Charana Bhatta


The extraction behavior of Zr(IV) with tri-n-octyl amine (TOA) in kerosene was studied through a new method of solvent extraction. The mechanism of extraction and the species extracted were identified. Quantitative extraction of Zr(IV) with TOA in kerosene was studied by changing different parameters such as acid variation, diluent effect, metal concentration variation, extractant variation, effect of salting out reagent concentration and effect of temperature. It was observed that the percentage of extraction of Zr(IV) increased when the concentration of TOA and the percentage of extraction also increased when the metal ion concentration increased. The percentage of Zr(IV) became 97.4% with 0.1 M TOA from 3.0 M sulphuric acid. Kerosene was found to be effective diluent for the extraction of Zr(IV) with TOA.

icon graph This Abstract was viewed 1976 times | icon graph Article PDF downloaded 652 times

How to Cite
Swain, J.; Sahoo, A.; Bhatta, B. C. Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Zr(IV) from Sulphuric Acid Medium Using Tri-N-Octyl Amine in Kerosene. Eur. J. Chem. 2018, 9, 222-227.

Article Details

Crossref - Scopus - Google - European PMC

[1]. Lide, D. R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 88th edition, Taylor & Francis, 2007.

[2]. Considine, G. D. Van Nostrand's Encyclopedia of Chemistry, Wiley-Interscience, 2005.

[3]. How Products Are Made, Zirconium, ( Volume-1/Zirconium.html), Advameg Inc., 2007, Date Accessed: 01.05.2018.

[4]. Stwertka, A. A Guide to the Elements, Oxford University Press, 1996.

[5]. Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks, Oxford University Press, 2001.

[6]. Lee, D. B. N.; Roberts, M.; Bluchel, C. G.; Odell, R. A. Am. Soc. Artific. Inter. Organs J. 2010, 56, 550-556.

[7]. El-Yamani, I. S.; Farah, M. Y.; El-Aleim, F. A. Talanta 1978, 25, 523-525.

[8]. Sato, T.; Watanabe, H. Separat. Sci. Tech. 1982, 17, 625-634.

[9]. Sato, T.; Watanabe, H. J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 1974, 36, 2585-2589.

[10]. Schrotterova, D.; Nekovar, P.; Mrnka, M. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 1991, 150, 325-333.

[11]. Das, N. R.; Nandi, B.; Bhattacharya, S. N. Int. J. Appl. Rad. Isot. 1981, 32, 205-209.

[12]. Juang, R. S.; Lo, R. H. J. Chem. Tech. Biotech. 1993, 58, 261-269.

[13]. Chen, S.; Zhang, Z.; Kuang, S.; Li, Y.; Huang, X. Hydrometallurgy 2017, 169, 607-611.

[14]. Wang, L. Y.; Lee, M. S. Separat. Purif. Tech. 2015, 142, 83-89.

[15]. Das, N. R.; Lahiri, S. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 1994, 181, 157-164.

[16]. Biswas, S.; Basu, S. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 1999, 242, 253-258.

[17]. Reddy, B. R.; Kumar, J. R.; Reddy, A. V. Japan Soc. Anal. Chem. 2004, 20, 501-505.

[18]. Das, N. R.; Lahiri, S. Anal. Sci. 1992, 8, 317-322.

[19]. El-Yamani, I.; Farah, M.; Aleim, F. E. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 1978, 45, 125-133.

[20]. Cerrai, E.; Testa, C. Energ. Nucl. 1959, 6, 768-770.

[21]. Ezaz, M. Anal. Chem. 1976, 48, 1158-1161.

[22]. Reddy, B. R.; Priya, D. N.; Kumar, J. R. Hydrometallurgy 2004, 74, 277-283.

[23]. Huang, X.; Li, J.; Long, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Xue, X.; Zhu, Z. J. Rare Earths 2008, 26, 410-413.

[24]. Onishi, H.; Sekine, K. Talanta 1972, 19, 473-478.

[25]. Taghizadeh, M.; Ghanadi, M.; Zolfonoun, E. J. Nucl. Mater. 2011, 412, 334-337.

[26]. Reddy, B. R.; Kumar, J. R.; Reddy, A. V; Priya, D. N. Hydrometallurgy 2004, 72, 303-307.

[27]. Yamani, I. S. E.; Aleim, F. A. A. E. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 1985, 88, 201-208.

Supporting Agencies

College of Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751029, Odisha, India.

Dimensions - Altmetric - scite_ - PlumX

Downloads and views


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...
License Terms

License Terms


Copyright © 2024 by Authors. This work is published and licensed by Atlanta Publishing House LLC, Atlanta, GA, USA. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial (CC BY NC) (International, v4.0) License ( By accessing the work, you hereby accept the Terms. This is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the CC BY NC License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited without any further permission from Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry). No use, distribution, or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Permissions for commercial use of this work beyond the scope of the License ( are administered by Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry).