European Journal of Chemistry

Highly sensitive procedure for the determination of ultra-trace amounts of bromate ions in water by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with UV-Vis spectrophotometry

Main Article Content

Hamed Mohammed Al-Saidi


In the present work, a novel, simple, and green procedure is presented for the determination of bromate ions in water. The method is based upon using tetraphenylphosphonium iodide (TPP+ I) as an ion pairing reagent and a source of iodide ions that react with bromate to produce triiodide ion (I3). The complex ion associate formed between I3, equivalent to bromate ions, and TPP+ was extracted by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. Under the optimum conditions, Beer’s-Lambert law and Ringbom’s plot of the colored complex ion associate were obeyed in the range of 0.01-0.5 and 0.02-0.2 µg/mL of BrO3 at 365 nm, respectively, with a relative standard deviation in the range of 2.1 ± 1.3%. The proposed method offers 0.003 and 0.012 µg/mL lower limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of the bromate ion, respectively. Moreover, the chemical composition and the stability constant of the developed ion associate were found to be [TPP+ I3] and 4.43 × 105, respectively. The proposed method was free from most interferences present in many chromatographic, spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods. The developed method did not need a special treatment of sample for eliminating the interferences prior to the application of DLLME and was successfully used to the analysis of bromate ion in both drinking water treated by ozone and tap water.


icon graph This Abstract was viewed 1451 times | icon graph Article PDF downloaded 644 times

How to Cite
Al-Saidi, H. M. Highly Sensitive Procedure for the Determination of Ultra-Trace Amounts of Bromate Ions in Water by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Combined With UV-Vis Spectrophotometry. Eur. J. Chem. 2012, 3, 202-207.

Article Details

Crossref - Scopus - Google - European PMC

[1]. Alonso-Mateos, A.; Almendral-Parra, M. J.; Fuentes-Prieto, M. S. Talanta 2008, 76, 892-897.

[2]. Brookman, R. M.; McClintock, A. M.; Gagnon, G. A. Aquacult. Eng. 2011, 45, 9-12.

[3]. Michalski, R. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2003, 12, 727-734.

[4]. Ingrand, V.; Guinamant, J. L.; Bruchet, A.; Brosse, C.; Noij, T. H. M.; Brandt, A.; Sacher, F.; McLeod, C.; Elwaer, A. R.; Crouee, J. P.; Quevauviller, P. Trends Anal. Chem. 2002, 21, 1-12.

[5]. Othman, A. A.; Al-Ansi, S. A.; Al-Tufail, M. A. Anal. Lett. 2010, 43, 886-891.

[6]. Seubert, A.; Schminke, G.; Nowak, M.; Ahrer, W.; Buchberger, W. J. Chromatogr. A 2000, 884, 191-199.

[7]. Magnuson, M. L. Anal. Chim. Acta 1998, 377, 53-60.

[8]. Hautman, D. P.; M. Bolyard, M. J. Chromatogr. A 1992, 602, 65-74.

[9]. Romele, L. Analyst 1998, 123, 291-295.

[10]. Afkhami, A.; Madrakian, T.; Bahram, M. J. Hazard. Mater. 2005, B123, 250-255.

[11]. VanStaden, J. F.; Mulaudzi, L. V.; Stefan, R. I. Talanta 2005, 64, 1196-1202.

[12]. Michalski, R.; Lyko, A. J. Environ. Sci. Healt. A 2010, 45, 1275-1280.

[13]. Medina-Escriche, J.; Sevillano-Cabeza, A.; Martin-Penella, M.; Llobat-Estelles, M. Analyst 1985, 110, 1467-1471.

[14]. Pena-Pereira, F.; Lavilla, I.; Bendicho, C. Spectrochim Acta B 2009, 64, 1-15.

[15]. Farajzadeh, M. A.; Djozan, D.; Bakhtiyari, R. F. Talanta 2010, 81, 1360-1367.

[16]. Yousefi, S. R.; Shemirani, F. Anal. Chim. Acta 2010, 669, 25-31.

[17]. Rezaee, M.; Yamini, Y.; Khanchi, A.; Faraji, M.; Saleh, A. J. Hazard. Mater. 2010, 178, 766-770.

[18]. Zhao, R. -S.; X. Wang, X.; Sun, J.; Wang, S. -S.; Yuan, J. -P.; Wang, X. -K. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2010, 397, 1627-1633.

[19]. El-Shahawi, M. S.; Al-Saidi, H. M.; Bashammakh, A. S.; Al-Sibaai, A. A.; Abdelfadeel, M. A. Talanta 2011, 84, 175-179.

[20]. El-Shahawi, M. S.; Hassan, S. S. M.; Othman, A. M.; Zyada, M. A.; El-Sonbati, M. A. Anal. Chim. Acta 2005, 534, 319-326.

[21]. Reid, H. J.; Bashammakh, A. A.; Goodall, P. S.; Landon, M. R.; Sharp, C. C. B. Talanta 2008, 75, 189-197.

[22]. Sawyer, D. T.; Heinemann, W. R.; Beebe, J. M. Chemistry Experiments for Instrumental Methods, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1984.

[23]. Uraisin, K.; Takayanagi, T.; Nacapricha, D.; Motomizu, S. Anal. Chim. Acta 2006, 580, 68-74.

[24]. Kocurova, L.; Balogh, I. S.; Skrlikova, J.; Posta, J.; Andruch, V. Talanta 2010, 82, 1958-1964.

[25]. Oliveira, S. M; Segundo, M. A; Rangel, A. O. S. S.; Lima, J. L. F. C.; Cerda, V. Anal. Lett. 2011, 44, 284-297.

[26]. Esteves, S. J. C. G.; Dias, J. R. M.; Magalhaes, J. M. C. Anal. Chim. Acta. 2001, 450, 175-184.

Supporting Agencies

Institute of Scientific Research and Revival of Islamic Heritage, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, 21955, Saudi Arabia
Most read articles by the same author(s)

Dimensions - Altmetric - scite_ - PlumX

Downloads and views


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...
License Terms

License Terms


Copyright © 2024 by Authors. This work is published and licensed by Atlanta Publishing House LLC, Atlanta, GA, USA. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial (CC BY NC) (International, v4.0) License ( By accessing the work, you hereby accept the Terms. This is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the CC BY NC License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited without any further permission from Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry). No use, distribution, or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Permissions for commercial use of this work beyond the scope of the License ( are administered by Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry).