European Journal of Chemistry

The chemistry of group-VIb metal carbonyls



Main Article Content

Manish Kaushik
Ayodhya Singh
Munesh Kumar

Abstract

The special interest attached to the chemistry of metal carbonyls arises from several causes. While quite distinct from the metal carbonyls in the organometallic compounds, they differ in physical properties (e.g., their volatility) from all other compounds of the transition metals. Chemically, they constitute a group of compounds in which the formal valency of the metal atoms is zero, and in this respect (apart, perhaps, from the ammoniates of the alkali metals) they are comparable only with the recently discovered compounds. As a class, the carbonyls are reactive compounds, and a number of new types of inorganic compounds have been discovered. In the concepts for new products, performance, product safety, and product economy criteria are equally important. They are taken into account already when the raw material base for a new industrial product development is defined. Since the discovery of nickel carbonyl by Mond and Langer in 1888, the carbonyls of the iron group and of chromium, molybdenum and tungsten have found important technical applications, e.g., in the Mond nickel process, and for the preparation of the metals in a state of subdivision and of purity suitable for powder metallurgy, for catalysts, etc. The reaction mechanism of the processes developed for producing the carbonyls technically has only recently received its interpretations. Within the space of review it is necessary to limit discussion to a few topics. Particular stress has accordingly laid upon (a) the chemical bonding in metal carbonyls, (b) importance of IR and NMR spectroscopy in characterization of metal carbonyls, (c) substitution reactions of G-VIb metal carbonyls, (d) kinetics and mechanism of substitution reactions in metal carbonyls, (e) substituted complexes of G-VIb metal carbonyl, (f) chelate complexes of G-VIb metal carbonyls, (g) uses of G-VIb metal carbonyl complexes and (h) studies done on G-VIb metal carbonyls.

3_3_367_394_800


icon graph This Abstract was viewed 8692 times | icon graph Article PDF downloaded 4912 times

How to Cite
(1)
Kaushik, M.; Singh, A.; Kumar, M. The Chemistry of Group-VIb Metal Carbonyls. Eur. J. Chem. 2012, 3, 367-394.

Article Details

Share
Crossref - Scopus - Google - European PMC
References

[1]. Elschenbroich, C., Organometallics, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2006.

[2]. Trout, W. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1937, 14(10), 453-458.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ed014p453

[3]. Whitaker, A.; Jeffery, J. W. Acta Crystallogr. 1967, 23, 977-984.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S0365110X67004153

[4]. Patnaik, P. A Comprehensive Guide to the Hazardous Properties of Chemical Substances, 3rd Edn., Wiley, pp. 626, 2007.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470134955

[5]. Brimm, E. O.; Lynch, M. A.; Sesny, W. J., Process for preparing chromium carbonyl, United States Patent 2803525, Aug. 29, 1961.

[6]. Patnaik, P. Chromium hexacarbonyl. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 222–223, 2003.

[7]. Chromium (III) and compounds fact sheet, National Pollutant Inventory (http://www.npi.gov. au/database/substance-info/profiles/24. html).

[8]. Hurd, D. T., Synthesis of molybdenum and tungsten carbonyls, United States Patent 2554194, May. 22, 1951.

[9]. Randolph, S.; Fowlkes, J.; Rack, P. Crit. Rev. Solid. State2006, 31, 55-89.

[10]. Faller, J. W., Hexacarbonylmolybdenum, Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, Ed: L. Paquette, J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 2004.

[11]. http://www.chm.bris.ac. uk/teaching-labs/inorganic2ndyear/2004-2005labmanual/Experiment3. pdf

[12]. Marradi, M. Synlett. 2005, 7, 1195-1196.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-865206

[13]. Feldmann, J.; Cullen, W. R. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1997, 31, 2125-2129.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es960952y

[14]. Feldmann, J.; Grumping, R.; Hirner, A. V. Fresen. J. Anal. Chem. 1994, 350, 228-235.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00322474

[15]. Kubas, G. J., Metal Dihydrogen and σ-Bond Complexes, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, 2001.

[16]. Kubas, G. J.; VanDerSluys, L. S. Inorg. Syn. 1990, 28, 29-33.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470132593.ch6

[17]. Blanchard, A. A. Chem. Rev. 1937, 21, 3-38.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr60068a002

[18]. Allian, A. D.; Wang, Y.; Saeys, M.; Kuramshina, G. M.; Garland, M. Vib. Spectrosc. 2006, 41, 101-111.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vibspec.2006.01.013

[19]. Feldmann, J. J. Env. Monitor. 1999, 1(1), 33-37.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/a807277i
PMid:11529076

[20]. Roode, W. H.; Vrieze, K. J. Organomet. Chem. 1977, 135(2), 183-193.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(00)80859-1

[21]. Graham, J. R; Angelici, R. J. Inorg. Chem. 1967, 6(11), 2082-2085.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50057a034

[22]. Subasi, E.; Ugur, F.; Senturk, O. S. Trans. Met. Chem. 2004, 29, 16-18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:TMCH.0000014476.17386.6b

[23]. Szesni, N.; Weibert, B.; Fischer, H. Inorg. Chim. Acta 2004, 357(6), 1789-1798.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ica.2003.12.013

[24]. Nifantyev, E. E.; Maslennikova, V. I.; Goryukhina, S. E.; Antipin, M. Y.; Lyssenko, K. A.; Vasyanina, L. K. J. Organomet. Chem. 2001, 631(1-2), 1-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(01)00779-3

[25]. Major, Q.; McDonald, R.; Takats, J. J. Organomet. Chem. 2003, 681(1-2), 250-257.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(03)00628-4

[26]. Bayram, E.; Özkar, S. J. Organomet. Chem. 2006, 691(15), 3267-3273.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2006.03.036

[27]. Pearson, A. J., Trimethylamine N-Oxide, Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2001.

[28]. Franzen, V. Org. Synth. 1967, 47, 96-96.

[29]. Ingham, W. L.; Billing, D. G.; Levendis, D. C.; Coville, N. J. ¬Inorg. Chim. Acta1991, 187(1), 17-21.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-1693(00)82972-2

[30]. Strohmeier, W. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Eng. 1964, 3, 730-737.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.196407301

[31]. Stolz, I. W.; Dobson, G. R.; Sheline, R. K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1962, 84(18), 3589-3590.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja00877a038

[32]. VonGustorf, E. K.; Greveis, F. W. Fortschr. Chem. Forsch. 1969, 13, 366-369.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BFb0051138

[33]. Graham, M. A.; Rest, A. J.; Turner, J. J. J. Organomet. Chem. 1972, 34(2), C34-C36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(00)88270-4

[34]. Ogden, J. S.; Turner, J. J. Chem. Brit. 1971, 7, 186-188.

[35]. Melntyre, J. A. J. Physic. Chem. 1970, 74, 2408-2411.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/j100705a032

[36]. Rest, A. J.; Turner, J. J. Chem. Commun. 1969, 8, 375-376.

[37]. Boylan, M. J.; Braterman, P. S.; Fullarton, A. J. Organomet. Chem. 1971, 31, C29-C30.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(00)86257-9

[38]. Schwenzer, G.; Darensbourg, M. Y. Inorg. Chem. 1972, 11(8), 1967-1970.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50114a055

[39]. Fub. W; Trushin, S. A.; Schmid, W. E. Res. Chem. Intermed. 2001, 27(4-5), 447-457.

[40]. Subasi, E.; Temel, H. Synth. React. Inorg. Me. 2007, 37(2), 85-89.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15533170601187409

[41]. Şenturk, O. S.; Ugur, F. Synth. React. Inorg. Me. 2001, 31(10), 1843-1851.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/SIM-100108266

[42]. Ozdemir, U.; Karacan, N.; Senturk, O. S.; Sert, S.; Ugur, F. Synth. React. Inorg. Me. 2004, 34(6), 1057-1067.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/SIM-120037527

[43]. Frey, G. D.; Ofele, K.; Krist, H. G.; Herdtweck, E.; Herrmann, W. A. Inorg. Chim. Acta 2006, 359(9), 2622-2634.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ica.2005.09.049

[44]. Ozkar, S.; Kayran, C.; Demir, N. J. Organomet. Chem. 2003, 688(1-2), 62-67.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2003.08.031

[45]. Ruff, J. K.; Lustig, M. Inorg. Chem. 1968, 7(10), 2171-2173.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50068a048

[46]. IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nded. The Gold Book, 1997, Online corrected version: "complex", 2006.

[47]. IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nded. The Gold Book, 1997, Online corrected version: "coordination entity", 2006.

[48]. Asali, K. J.; Janaydeh, H. A. Acta Chim. Slov. 2003, 50, 677-686.

[49]. Banide, E. V.; Grealis, J. P.; Muller-Bunz, H.; Ortin, Y.; Casey, M.; Mendicute-Fierro, C.; Lagunas, M. C.; McGlinchey, M. J. J. Organomet. Chem. 2008, 693(10), 1759-1770.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2008.01.046

[50]. Heinicke, J.; Surana, A.; Singh, S.; Gupta, N.; Bansal, R. K. Phos. Sul. Silicon Relat. Elem. 2002, 177(8-9), 2117-2118.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10426500213427

[51]. Miki, K.; Yokoi, T.; Nishino, F.; Ohe, K.; Uemura, S. J. Organomet. Chem. 2002, 645(1-2), 228-234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(01)01328-6

[52]. Karahan, S.; Köse, P.; Subasi, E.; Temel, H. Synth. React. Inorg. Me. 2008, 38(7), 615-619.

[53]. Subasi, E.; Kose, P.; Karahan, S.; Ergun, Y. Synth. React. Inorg. Me. 2009, 39(3), 139-143.

[54]. Gan, X. X.; Tan, R. Y.; Song, H. B.; Zhao, X. M.; Tang, L. F. J. Coord. Chem. 2006, 59(7), 783-789.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00958970500376153

[55]. Song, L. C.; Zhu, Y. H.; Hu, Q. M. Polyhedron 1998, 17(4), 469-473.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-5387(97)00370-7

[56]. Delgado, Y. O.; De Jesus-Segarra, J.; Cortes-Figueroa, J. E. J. Organomet. Chem. 2005, 690(14), 3366-3372.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2005.04.018

[57]. Rivera-Rivera, L. A.; Roman, G. C.; Acevedo, D. A.; Delgado, Y. O.; Figueroa, J. E. C. Inorg. Chim. Acta 2004, 357(3), 881-887.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-1693(03)00494-8

[58]. Kocak, F. S., Thesis entitled “Synthesis and Characterization of Tetracarbonyl [N, N’-bis(ferrocenylmethylene) ethylenediamine] Molybdenum (0) complexe ”, Middle East Technical University, p. p. 34-35, May 2005.

[59]. King, R. B. Inorg. Chem. 1963, 2, 936-944.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50009a014

[60]. Werner, H.; Prinz, R. Chem. Ber. 1967, 100, 265-270.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cber.19671000131

[61]. King, R. B., Organometallic Synthesis, Vol. 1, Academic Press, New York, N. Y., pp. 122-125, 1965.

[62]. Bennett, M. A.; Pratt, L.; Wilkinson, G. J. Chem. Soc. 1961, 2037-2044.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/jr9610002037

[63]. King R. B.; Korenowski, T. F. Inorg. Chem. 1971, 10(6), 1188-1195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50100a018

[64]. Heuer, B.; Matthews, M. L.; Reid, G.; Ripley, M. J. Organomet. Chem. 2002, 655(1-2), 55-62.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(02)01413-4

[65]. Fisher, E. O.; Frohlich, W. Chem. Ber. 1959, 92, 2995-2998.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cber.19590921152

[66]. King, R. B. J. Organomet. Chem. 1967, 8(1), 139-148.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(00)84713-0

[67]. Kayran, C.; Kozanoglu, F.; Ozkar, S.; Saldamlı, S.; Tekkaya, A.; Kreiter, C. G. Inorg. Chim. Acta 1999, 284(2), 229-236.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-1693(98)00293-X

[68]. Chen, J.; Angelici, R. J. Inorg. Chim. Acta 2002, 334, 204-212.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-1693(02)00857-5

[69]. Mitoraj, M. P.; Michalak, A. J. Mol. Model. 2010, 16, 337-342.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00894-009-0545-7
PMid:19603204

[70]. Darensbourg, D. J.; Kump, R. L. Inorg. Chem. 1978, 17(9), 2680-2682.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50187a062

[71]. Garcia-Escudero, L. A.; Miguel, D.; Turiel, J. A. J. Organomet. Chem. 2006, 691(16), 3434-3444.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2006.04.024

[72]. Guinn R. H.; Gilliland, R., Experiment 3. 14-Identification of Stereochemical (Geometrical) Isomers of [Mo(CO)4(L)2] by Infra-Red Spectroscopy, 1-6, September 15, 2008 [http://science.herograw.net/lbox/C423L-E314.pdf]

[73]. Allen, A.; Barrett, P. Can. J. Chem. 1968, 46, 1649-1653.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/v68-276

[74]. Strohmeier, W.; Schonuer, G. Chem. Ber. 1961, 94, 1346-1349.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cber.19610940527

[75]. Strohmeier, W.; Gerlach, K. Z. Naturforsch. 1960, 15b, 622-622.

[76]. Werner, R. P. M.; Coffield, T. H., 6thInternational Conference on Coordination Chemistry, Detroit, Preprint p. 534, Macmillan Co., New York, 1961.

[77]. Dobson, G. R.; Sayed, M. F. A.; Stolz, I. W.; Sheline, R. K. Inorg. Chem. 1962, 1(3), 526-530.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50003a017

[78]. Dai, H. F.; Yeh, W. Y. Inorg. Chim. Acta 2010, 363(5), 925-929.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ica.2009.12.036

[79]. Carnahan, E. M.; Protasiewicz, J. D.; Lippard, S. J. Accounts Chem. Res. 1993, 26, 90-97.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ar00027a003

[80]. Smith, A. P.; Lamba, J. J. S.; Fraser, C. L.; Org. Synth. 2004, 10, 107-107.

[81]. Darensbourg, D. J.; Kump, R. L. Inorg. Chem. 1978, 17(9), 2680-2682.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50187a062

[82]. Manuta, D. M.; Lees, A. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64(7), 637-638.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ed064p637

[83]. Basolo, F.; McDonald, J. W. Inorg. Chem. 1971, 10(3), 492-497.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50097a011

[84]. Edinc, P.; Onal, A. M.; Ozkar, S. J. Organomet. Chem. 2007, 692(10), 1983-1989.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2007.01.006

[85]. Klanberg, F.; Guggenberger, L. J. Chem. Commun. 1967, 8(24), 1293-1294.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c19670001293

[86]. Klanberg, F.; Mutterties, E. L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1968, 90(12), 3296-3297.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja01014a090

[87]. Goumans, T. P. M.; Ehlers, A. W.; Hemert, M. C.; Rosa, A.; Baerends, E. J.; Lammertsma, K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125(12), 3558-3567.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja029135q
PMid:12643718

[88]. Tate, D. P.; Knipple, K. R.; Augl, J. M. Inorg. Chem. 1962, 1(2), 433-444.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50002a052

[89]. Elschenbroich, C.; Salzer, A., Organometallics: A Concise Introduction, 2nd Ed., Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, 1992.

[90]. Tate, D. P.; Augl, J. M.; Buss, A. Inorg. Chem. 1963, 2(2), 427-428.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50006a056

[91]. Carey, J.; Fettinger, J. C.; Poli, R.; Smith, K. M. Inorg. Chim. Acta2000, 299(1), 118-122.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-1693(99)00478-8

[92]. Edelmann, F. T. Inorg. Chim. Acta 2004, 357(15), 4592-4595.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ica.2004.06.038

[93]. Tate, D. P.; Augl, J. M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1963, 85, 2174-2175.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja00897a036

[94]. Hogarth, G.; Norman, T. Inorg. Chim. Acta 1997, 254(1), 167-171.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-1693(96)05133-X

[95]. Green, M. L. H.; Dennis, K. P. Chem. Rev. 1995, 95, 439-473
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr00034a006

[96]. Fischer, E. O.; Ofele, K.; Essler, H.; Frohlich, W.; Mortensen J. P.; Semmlinger, W. Chem. Ber. 1958, 91, 2763-2772.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cber.19580911231

[97]. Natta, G.; Ercoli, E.; Calderazzo, F. Chim. Ind. Milano 1958, 40, 287-288.

[98]. Fischer, E. O.; Kriebitzsch N.; Fischer, R. D. Chem. Ber. 1959, 92, 3214-3222.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cber.19590921226

[99]. King, R. B.; Stone, F. G. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1960, 82, 4557-4562.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja01502a028

[100]. Abel, E. W.; Bennett, M. A.; Burton, R.; Wilkinson, G. J. Chem. Soc. 1958, 4559-4563.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/jr9580004559

[101]. Manuel, T. A.; Stone, F. G. A. Chem. Ind. 1960, 231-232.

[102]. Fisher, E. O.; Palm, C.; Fritz, H. P. Chem. Ber. 1959, 92, 2645-2657.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cber.19590921041

[103]. Fisher, E. O.; Palm, C. Z. Naturfosch. 1959, 14b, 598-299.

[104]. Manuel, T. A.; Stone, F. G. A. Chem. Ind. 1959, 1349-1350.

[105]. Fischer, E. O.; Frohlich, W. Chem. Ber. 1959, 92, 2995-2998.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cber.19590921152

[106]. Bannett, M. A.; Wilkinson, G. Chem. Ind. 1959, 1516-1517.

[107]. Pettit, R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1959, 81, 1266-1266.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja01514a074

[108]. Burton, R.; Green, M. L. H.; Abel, E. W.; Wilkinson, G. Chem. Ind. 1958, 1592-1593.

[109]. King, R. B.; Stone, F. G. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1961, 83(17), 3590-3593.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja01478a012

[110]. Green, M. L. H., Some Organic Chemistry of Molybdenum and Related Topics, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford, England, 373-388, 1972. (http://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/pdf/1972/pdf/3003x0373.pdf)

[111]. Froberg, S.; Felton, G. A. N., Synthesis and Electrochemical Study of Alkyne Substituted Metal Carbonyl Complexes, docs/ Department of Chemistry, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309 (http://www2.oakland.edu/chemistry/docs/Sarah_Froberg.pdf)

[112]. Zeller, M.; Lazich, E.; Hunter, A. D. Acta Cryst. 2003, E59, m914-m915.

[113]. McArdle, P.; O’Neill, L.; Cunningham, D. Inorg. Chim. Acta 1999, 291, 252-257.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-1693(99)00043-2

[114]. Akita, M.; Terada, M.; Tanaka, M.; Morooka, Y. J. Organomet. Chem. 1996, 510, 255-261.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-328X(95)05918-F

[115]. Sloan, T. E., Wojcicki, A. Inorg. Chem. 1968, 7(7), 1268-1269.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50065a002

[116]. Saito, K.; Kawano, Y.; Shimoi, M. Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2007, 17, 3195-3200.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejic.200700089

[117]. Dunitz, J. D.; Pauling, P. Helv. Chim. Acta1960, 43, 2188-2197.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hlca.19600430744

[118]. Bailey, M. F.; Dahl, L. F. Inorg. Chem. 1965, 4(9), 1314-1319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50031a017

[119]. Bailey, M. F.; Dahl, L. F. Inorg. Chem. 1965, 4(9), 1298-1306.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50031a015

[120]. Timmers, F. J.; Wacholtz, W. F. J. Chem. Edu. 1994, 71, 987-990.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ed071p987

[121]. King, R. B., Organometallic Syntheses, vol. 1, Academic Press, New York, p. 125, 1965.

[122]. Abel, E.; Bennett, W. M. A.; Burton, R.; Wilkinson, G. J. Chem. Soc. 1958, 4559-4563.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/jr9580004559

[123]. Experiment 4, Transition-Metal Organometallic and Metal-Organic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, 4:153, pp. 1-8, 2004 (http://www.uiowa.edu/~c004153a/MoCOx-f04rev.pdf)

[124]. King, R. B.; Korenowski, T. F. Inorg. Chem. 1971, 10(6), 1188-1195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50100a018

[125]. Cotton, F. A.; Zingales, F. Inorg. Chem. 1962, 1(1), 145-147.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50001a028

[126]. Winstein, S.; Kaesz, H. D.; Kreiter, C. G.; Friedrich, E. C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1965, 87(14), 3267-3269.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja01092a060

[127]. Bruce, M. I.; Cooke, M.; Green, M. J. Organomet. Chem. 1968, 13(1), 227-234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(00)88876-2

[128]. Atwood, J. D., Inorganic and Organometallic Reaction Mechanism, Bool Publishing Co., Monterey, CA, 1985.

[129]. Basolo, F. Pure Appl. Chem. 1988, 60(8), 1193-1196.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1351/pac198860081193

[130]. Keeley, D. F.; Johnson, R. E. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 1959, 11, 33-41.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1902(59)80212-8

[131]. Wojcicki, A.; Basolo, F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1961, 83(3), 520-525.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja01464a004

[132]. Day, J. P.; Pearson, R. G.; Basolo, F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1968, 90(25), 6927-6933.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja01027a006

[133]. Tolman, C. A. Chem. Rev. 1977, 77, 313-348.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr60307a002

[134]. Thorsteinson, E. M.; Basolo, F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1966, 88(17), 3929-3936.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja00969a008

[135]. Schuster-Woldan, H. G.; Basolo, F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1966, 88(8), 1657-1663.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja00960a015

[136]. Cramer, R.; Seiwell, L. P. J. Organomet. Chem. 1975, 92(2), 245-252.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(00)92096-5

[137]. Huttner, G.; Brintzinger, H. H.; Bell, L. G.; Friedlich, P.; Bejenki, V.; Neugebauer, D. J. Organomet. Chem. 1978, 145(3), 329-333.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(00)81301-7

[138]. Ji, L. N.; Rerek, M. E.; Basolo, F. Organometallics 1984, 3(5), 740-745.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/om00083a016

[139]. Hart-Davis, A. J.; Mawby, R. J. J. Chem. Soc. A 1969, 2403-2407.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/j19690002403

[140]. Novi, M.; Guiseppe, G.; Dell’Erba, C. J. Heterocyclic. Chem. 1975, 12(5), 1055-1059.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhet.5570120552

[141]. Mossis, D. E.; Basolo, F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1968, 90(10), 2531-2535.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja01012a017

[142]. Angelici, R. S.; Lowen, W. Inorg. Chem. 1967, 6(4), 682-686.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50050a010

[143]. Kershner, D. L.; Rheingold, A. L.; Basolo, F. Organometallics 1987, 6, 196-198.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/om00144a039

[144]. Jones, D. J.; Mawby, R. J. Inorg. Chim. Acta 1972, 6, 157-160.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-1693(00)91777-8

[145]. Kidd, D. R.; Brown, T. L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1978, 100(13), 4095-4103.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja00481a018

[146]. Shi, Q. Z.; Richmond, T. G.; Trogler, W. C.; Basolo, F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1984, 106(1), 71-76.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja00313a016

[147]. Brown, T. L. Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 1980, 333, 80-89.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1980.tb53632.x

[148]. Kowaleski, R. M.; Basolo, F.; Trogler, W. C.; Ernst, R. D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1986, 108(19), 6046-6048.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja00279a067
PMid:22175375

[149]. Szymanska-Buzar, T.; Kern, K. J. Organomet. Chem. 2001, 622(1-2), 74-83.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(00)00865-2

[150]. Tang, L. F.; Jia, W. L. Wang, Z. H., Chai, J. F.; Wang, J. T. J. Organomet. Chem. 2001, 637, 209-215.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(01)00907-X

[151]. Tripathi, S. C.; Srivastava, S. C.; Srivastava, P. K. Trans. Metal. Chem. 1982, 7(3), 170-174.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01035835

[152]. Gu, C. Y.; Jing, S.; Ji, W.; Li, Z. W. Inorg. Chim. Acta 2010, 363(7), 1604-1606.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ica.2010.01.031

[153]. King, R. B.; Korenowski, T. F. Inorg. Chem. 1971, 10(6), 1188-1195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50100a018

[154]. Sert, S.; Ercag, A.; Senturk, O. S.; Sterenberg, B. T.; Udachin, K. A.; Ozdemir, U.; Sarikahya, F. Polyhedron 2003, 22(13), 1689-1693.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-5387(03)00309-7

[155]. Jongh, L. A.; Strasser, C. E.; Raubenheimer, H. G.; Cronje, S. Polyhedron 2009, 28(16), 3635-3641.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.poly.2009.07.063

[156]. Rooney, C. P.; Wade, J. L.; Hinkle, A. C.; Stolley, R. M.; Miller, S. M.; Helm, M. L. Main Group Chem. 2008, 7(2), 155-165.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10241220802376535

[157]. Morkan, I. A; Guven, K.; Ozkar, S. J. Organomet. Chem. 2004, 689(14), 2319-2323.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2004.04.020

[158]. Wang, Q.; Zhang, W. X.; Zhenfeng, X., Organometallics 2008, 27(15), 3627-3629.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/om800565r

[159]. Stepnicka, P. J. Organomet. Chem. 2008, 693(2), 297-306.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2007.10.056

[160]. Portnyagin, I. A.; Nechaev, M. S. J. Organomet. Chem. 2009, 694(19), 3149-3153.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2009.05.017

[161]. Demircan, O.; Ozkar, S.; Ulku, D.; Yildirim, L. T. J. Organomet. Chem. 2003, 688(1-2), 68-74.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2003.08.032

[162]. Hogarth, G.; Norman, T. Inorg. Chim. Acta 1997, 254(1), 167-171.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-1693(96)05133-X

[163]. Ohs, A. C.; Rheingold, A. L.; Shaw, M. J.; Nataro, C. Organometallics 2004, 23(20), 4655-4660.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/om049735t

[164]. Taher, M. A.; Jarelnabbi, S. E.; Al-Sehemi, A. G. M.; El-Medani, S. M.; Ramadan, R. M. J. Coord. Chem. 2009, 62(8), 1293-1301.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00958970802541736

[165]. Guerro, M.; Piazza, E. D.; Jiang, X. Roisnel, T.; Lorcy, D. J. Organomet. Chem. 2008, 693(13), 2345-2350.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2008.04.011

[166]. Tang, F. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Chai, J. F.; Leng, X. B.; Wang, J. T.; Wang, H. G. J. Organomet. Chem. 2002, 642(1-2), 179-185.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(01)01192-5

[167]. Moya, S. A.; Guerrero, J.; Pastene, R.; Guzman, I. A.; Pardey, A. J. Polyhedron 2002, 21(4), 439-444.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-5387(01)01009-9

[168]. Moya, S. A.; Pastene, R.; Bozec, H. L.; Baricelli, P. J.; Pardey, A. J.; Gimeno, J. Inorg. Chim. Acta 2001, 312(1-2), 7-14.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-1693(00)00292-9

[169]. Zimmer, K. D.; Shoemaker, R.; Ruminski, R. R. Inorg. Chim. Acta 2006, 359(5), 1478-1484.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ica.2005.11.042

[170]. Datta, P.; Patra, A. K.; Sinha, C. Polyhedron 2009, 28(3), 525-533.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.poly.2008.11.041

[171]. Karakus, M.; Davulga, G.; Ruiz, S. G.; Tschirschwitz, S.; Hawkins, E. H. Polyhedron 2009, 28(1), 91-94.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.poly.2008.10.004

[172]. Kocak, F. S.; Kavakli, C.; Akyol, C.; Onal, A. M.; Ozkar, S. J. Organomet. Chem. 2006, 691(23), 5030-5037. .
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2006.08.079

[173]. Xie, Y. F.; Zeng, G. T.; Song, H. B.; Tang, L. F. J. Organomet. Chem. 2010, 695(19-20), 2172-2179.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2010.06.006

[174]. Iglesias, M.; Llorente, A.; Pino, C. D.; Santos, A. J. Organomet. Chem. 1984, 263(2), 193-200.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(00)99183-6

[175]. Frey, G. D.; Herdtweck, E.; Herrmann, W. A. J. Organomet. Chem. 2006, 691(11), 2465-2478.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2006.01.033

[176]. Subasi, E.; Temel, H.; Senturk, O. S.; Ugur, F. J. Coord. Chem. 2006, 59(16), 1807-1811.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00958970600571703

[177]. Ruff, J. K.; Lustig, M. Inorg. Chem. 1968, 7(10), 2171-2173.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50068a048

[178]. Alper, F.; Kayran, C.; Ozkar, S. J. Organomet. Chem. 2006, 691(12), 2734-2738.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2006.02.005

[179]. King, R. B.; Xie, Y.; Schaefer, H. F.; Richardson, N.; Li, S. Inorg. Chim. Acta 2005, 358(5), 1442-1452.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ica.2004.07.060

[180]. Wittrig, R. E.; Kubiak, C. P. J. Electroanalytical Chem. 1995, 393(1), 75-86.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0728(95)04069-Z

[181]. Brown, M. D.; Levason, W.; Manning, J. M.; Reid, G. J. Organomet. Chem. 2005, 690(6), 1540-1548.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2004.12.020

[182]. Mohamed, H. A. J. Mol. Struct. 2006, 784(1-3), 254-258.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2005.09.016

[183]. Bitterwolf, T. E. Coord. Chem. Rev. 2001, 211(1), 235-254.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0010-8545(00)00275-7

[184]. Sert, S.; Senturk, O. S.; Ugur, F. S. Trans. Met. Chem. 2003, 28, 133-136.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022902613019

[185]. Senturk, O. S.; Ugur, F. Synth. React. Inorg. Me. 2001, 31(10), 1843-1851.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/SIM-100108266

[186]. Bin Li, Wang, B.; Xu, S. and Zhou, X. J. Organomet. Chem. 2005, 690(23), 5309-5317.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2005.05.004

[187]. King, R. B.; Stone, F. G. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1961, 83(17), 3590-3593.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja01478a012

[188]. Soliman, A. A.; Ali, S. A.; Orabi, A. Spectrochim. Acta A 2006, 65(3-4), 841-845.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2006.01.016
PMid:16574469

[189]. Fischer, P. J.; Krohn, K. M.; Mwenda, E. T.; Young Jr. V. G. Organometallics 2005, 24(7), 1776-1779.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/om0492101

[190]. Tan, R. Y.; Song, H. B.; Tang, L. F. J. Organomet. Chem. 2006, 691(26), 5964-5969.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2006.10.003

[191]. Harrington, L. E.; Cahill, L. S.; McGlinchey, M. J. Organometallic 2004, 23(12), 2884-2891.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/om0499456

[192]. Shlu, K. B.; Chou, C. C.; Wang, S. L.; Wei, S. C. Organometallics 1990, 9, 286-288.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/om00115a046

[193]. Mingos, D. M. P.; Wales, D. J. Introduction to cluster chemistry, Prentice Hall Press, 1990.

[194]. Huheey, J. E. Inorganic Chemistry, 3rded. Harper and Row, New York, 1983.

[195]. Braunstein, P.; Oro, L. A.; Raithby, P. R. Metal Clusters in Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 1999.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9783527618316

[196]. Zhuang, B.; Sun, H.; Pan, G.; He, L.; Wei, Q.; Zhou, Z.; Peng, S.; Wu, K. J. Organomet. Chem. 2001, 640(1-2), 127-139.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(01)01173-1

[197]. Garcia, M. E.; Garcia-Vivo, D.; Ruiz, M. A. J. Organomet. Chem. 2010, 695(10-11), 1592-1597.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2010.03.020

[198]. Zhou, Z.; Zhuang, B.; Wu, K.; Liu, P.; Wei, Y.; Yao, Y. J. Organomet. Chem. 2007, 692(7), 1411-1420.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2006.11.027

[199]. El-Kadri, O. M.; Heeg, M. J.; Winter, C. H. J. Organomet. Chem. 2009, 694(24), 3902-3911.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2009.08.001

[200]. Rodriguez-Palacios, R.; Reyes-Lezama, M.; Marquez-Pallares, L.; Lemus-Santana, A. A.; Sanchez-Guadarrama, O.; Hopfl, H.; Zuniga-Villarreal, N. Polyhedron 2010, 29(16), 3103-3110.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.poly.2010.08.011

[201]. Song, L. C.; Li, Q. S.; Hu, Q. M.; Dong, Y. B. J. Organomet. Chem. 2001, 619(1-2), 194-203.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(00)00585-4

[202]. Zhu, B. H.; Yin, Y. Q. Synth. React. Inorg. Me. 2006, 36(4), 331-334.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15533170600651421

[203]. Shieh, M.; Lin, S. F.; Guo, Y. W.; Hsu, M. H.; Lai, Y. W. Organometallics 2004, 23(22), 5182-5187.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/om049515f

[204]. Hsu, M. H.; Miu, C. Y.; Lin, Y. C.; Shieh, M. J. Organomet. Chem. 2006, 691(5), 966-974.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2005.10.039

[205]. Mathur, P.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Ahmed, M. O.; Lahiri, G. K.; Chakraborty, S.; Puranik, V. G.; Bhadbhade, M. M.; Umbarkar, S. B. J. Organomet. Chem. 2001, 629(1-2), 160-164.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(01)00828-2

[206]. Kuhnert, J.; Lamac, M.; Ruffer, T.; Walfort, B.; Stepnicka, P.; Lang, H. J. Organomet. Chem. 2007, 692(20), 4303-4314.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2007.06.059

[207]. Blitz, J. P.; Lucas, N. T.; Humphrey, M. G. J. Organomet. Chem. 2002, 650(1-2), 133-140.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(02)01201-9

[208]. Usher, A. J.; Humphrey, M. G.; Willis, A. C. J. Organomet. Chem. 2003, 682(1-2), 41-48.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(03)00692-2

[209]. Notaras, E. G. A.; Lucas, N. T.; Blitz, J. P.; Humphrey, M. G. J. Organomet. Chem. 2001, 631(1-2), 143-150.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(01)01049-X

[210]. Brenner, E.; Chetcuti, M. J.; Dridi, I.; Welter, R. J. Organomet. Chem. 2007, 692(22), 5097-5102.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2007.07.020

[211]. Lang, H.; Luhmann, B.; Buschbeck, R. J. Organomet. Chem. 2004, 689(22), 3598-3603.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2004.08.022

[212]. Wade, K. Adv. Inorg. Chem. Radiochem. 1976, 18, 1-66.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2792(08)60027-8

[213]. Girolami, G.; Lecture notes distributed at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. These notes contained original material that served as the basis of the sections on the 4n, 5n, and 6n rules, 2008.

[214]. Gilespie, R. J. Chem. Soc. Rev. 1979, 8(3), 315-352.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/cs9790800315

[215]. Mingos, D. M. P. Accounts Chem. Res. 1984, 17(9), 311-319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ar00105a003

[216]. Jemmis, E. D.; Balakrishnarajan, M. M.; Pancharatna, P. D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123(18), 4313-4323.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja003233z
PMid:11457198

[217]. Jemmis, E. D.; Balakrishnarajan, M. M.; Pancharatna, P. D. Chem. Rev. 2002, 102(1), 93-144.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr990356x
PMid:11782130

[218]. Cotton, F. A.; Wilkinson, G.; Murillo, C. A.; Bochmann, M. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 6thed., Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1999.

[219]. Randolph, S.; Fowlkes, J.; Rack, P. Crit. Rev. Solid State2006, 31(3), 55-57.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408430600930438

[220]. Xu, K.; Peng, H.; Lam, J. W. Y.; Poon, T. W. H.; Dong, Y.; Xu, H.; Sun, Q.; Cheuk, K. K. L.; Salhi, F.; Lee, P. P. S.; Tang, B. Z. Macromolecules2000, 33(19), 6918-6924.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma000843a

[221]. Dunne, T. G.; Cotton, F. A. Inorg. Chem. 1963, 2(2), 263-266.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50006a006

[222]. Darensbourg, M. Y.; Conder, H. L.; Darensbourg, D. J.; Hasday, C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1973, 95, 5919-5924.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja00799a015

[223]. Darensbourg, D. J.; Darensbourg, M. Y. Inorg. Chem. 1970, 9(7), 1691-1694.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50089a016

[224]. Fischer, E. O.; Maasbol, A. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., Eng. 1964, 3, 580-581.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.196405801

[225]. Fisher, E. O.; Kiener, V. J. Organomet. Chem. 1970, 23(1), 215-223.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(00)92816-X

[226]. Trost, B. M.; Lautens, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1983, 105, 3343-3344.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja00348a068

[227]. Abel, E.; Bennett, M. A.; Wilkinson, G. J. Chem. Soc. 1959, 2323-2327.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/jr9590002323

[228]. Stiddard, H. M. B. J. Chem. Soc. 1962, 4712-4715.

[229]. Costa, A. P.; Reis, P. M.; Gamelas, C.; Romao, C. C.; Royo, B. Inorg. Chim. Acta 2008, 361(7), 1915-1921.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ica.2007.10.011

[230]. Buzar, T. S. Coord. Chem. Rev. 2006, 250(9-10), 976-990.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2005.12.002

[231]. Adams, R. D.; Brosius, K. M.; Kwon, O. S. J. Organomet. Chem. 2002, 652(1-2), 51-59.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(02)01307-4

[232]. Wang, Z.; Kee, C. W.; Li, S.; Hor, T. S. A.; Zhao, J. Appl. Catal. A Gen. 2011, 393(1-2), 269-274.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2010.12.003

[233]. Xu, Q.; Souma, Y. Stud. Surf. Sci. Catal. 2003, 145, 215-218.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-2991(03)80198-2

[234]. Xu, Q. Coord. Chem. Rev. 2002, 231(1-2), 83-108.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0010-8545(02)00115-7

[235]. Brait, S.; Deabate, S.; Knox, S. A. R.; Sappa, E. J. Cluster Sci. 2001, 12(1), 139-173.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1016627113620

[236]. Grivani, G.; Tangestaninejad, S.; Habibi, M. H.; Mirkhani, V. Cat. Commun. 2005, 6(6), 375-378.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catcom.2005.02.014

[237]. Femoni, C.; Iapalucci, M. C.; Kaswalder, F.; Longoniand, G; Zacchini, S. Coord. Chem. Rev. 2006, 250(11-12), 1580-1604.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2006.03.011

[238]. Wang, C.; Yin, H.; Dai, S.; Sun, S. Chem. Mater. 2010, 22(10), 3277-3282.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cm100603r

[239]. Mann, B. E.; Johnson, T. R.; Clark, J. E.; Foresti, R.; Green, C.; Motterlini, R. J. Inorg. Biochem. 2003, 96(1), 40-43.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0162-0134(03)80472-5

[240]. Jaouen, G. Bioorganometallics: Biomolecules, Labeling, Medicine, Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, 2006.

[241]. Feldmann, J. J. Env. Monitor. 1999, 1, 33-37.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/a807277i
PMid:11529076

[242]. Kumar, S.; Dhar, D. N.; Saxena, P. N. J. Sci. Ind. Res. India 2009, 68, 181-187.

[243]. Mathur, P.; Singh, A. K.; Chatterjee, S.; Singh, V. K.; Mobin, S. M. J. Organomet. Chem. 2010, 695(7), 950-954.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2009.10.003

[244]. Darensbourg, D. J.; Rokicki, A.; Darensbourg, M. Y. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1981, 103, 3224-3226.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja00401a056

[245]. Darensbourg, M. Y.; Deaton, J. C. Inorg. Chem. 1981, 20, 1644-1646.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50220a005

[246]. Darensbourg, M. Y.; Slater, S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1981, 103, 5914-5915.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja00409a050

[247]. Maji, P.; Wang, W.; Green, A. E.; Gimbert, Y. J. Organomet. Chem. 2008, 693(10), 1841-1849.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2008.02.008

[248]. Volpe, M.; Bombieri G.; Marchini, N. J. Alloys Compd. 2006, 408, 1046-1051.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2004.12.132

[249]. Choi, H. J.; Park, Y. S.; Yun, H.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, C. S.; Ko, K.; Ahn, K. K. Org. Lett. 2002, 4(5), 795-798.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ol017294t
PMid:11869130

[250]. Kim, S.; Choi, S. Y.; Lee, Y. T.; Park, K. H.; Sitzmann, H.; Chung, Y. K. J. Organomet. Chem. 2007, 692(24), 5390-5394.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2007.08.043

[251]. Mukherjee, S.; Jana, G. P.; Ghorai, B. K. J. Organomet. Chem. 2009, 694(25), 4100-4106.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2009.08.019

[252]. Carriedo, G. A.; Alonso, F. J. G.; Valenzuela, C. D.; Valenzuela, M. L. Polyhedron 2006, 25(1), 105-112.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.poly.2005.07.016

[253]. Leadbeater, N. E.; Sharp, E. L. Organometallics 2003, 22(21), 4167-4169.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/om034072l

[254]. Brandstrom, A. Preparative Ion-Pair Extraction, Apotekarsocieten/Hassle Lakemedel, Sweden, 1974.

[255]. Gibson, D. H.; Ahmed, F. U.; Phillips, K. R. Organometallics 1982, 1(5), 679-681.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/om00065a001

[256]. Cherng, J. J.; Lai, Y. W.; Liu, Y. H.; Peng, S. M.; Ueng, C. H.; Shieh, M. Inorg. Chem. 2001, 40(6), 1206-1212.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic0004277
PMid:11300820

[257]. Tsumori, N.; Xu, Q. Inorg. Chem. 2003, 42(15), 4519-4521.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic034504k
PMid:12870939

[258]. Johnson, R.; Madhani, H.; Bullock, J. P. Inorg. Chim. Acta 2007, 360(10), 3414-3423.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ica.2007.04.029

[259]. Garcia, M. E.; Garcia-Vivo, D.; Ruiz, M. A.; Alvarez, S.; Aullon, G. Organometallics 2007, 26(20), 4930-4941.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/om700562g

[260]. Collman, J. P.; Hegedus, L. S.; Norton, J. R.; Finke, R. G. Principles and Applications of Organotransition Metal Chemistry, University Science Books: Mill Valley, CA, 1987.

[261]. Pearson, A. J. In the Chemistry of the Carbon-Metal Bond, F. R. Hartley, S. Patel Eds., Wiley: New York, Vol. 4, 890, 1987.

[262]. Pearson, A. J. Metallo-organic Chemistry, Wiley: New York, 1985.

[263]. Davies, S. G. Organotransition Metal Chemistry: Application to Organic Synthesis, Pergamon Press: Oxford, 1982.

[264]. Semmelhack, M. F.; Clark, G. R.; Garcia, J. L.; Harrison, J. J.; Thebtaranonth, Y.; Wulff, W.; Yamashita, A. Tetrahedron 1981, 37, 3957-3965.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4020(01)93270-3

[265]. Schreiber, S. L.; Klimas, M. T.; Sammakia, T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1987, 109(19), 5749-5759.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja00253a030

[266]. Nicholas, K. M. Accoun. Chem. Res. 1987, 20(6), 207-214.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ar00138a001

[267]. Davies, S. G.; Newton, R. F.; Williams, J. M. J. Tetrahedron Lett. 1989, 30(22), 2967-2970.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(00)99171-8

[268]. Uemurs, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Isobe, K.; Minami, T.; Hayashi, Y. J. Org. Chem. 1986, 51, 2859-2863.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jo00365a001

[269]. Uemurs, M.; Minami, T.; Yamashita, Y.; Hiyoshi, K.; Hayashi, Y. Tetrahedron Lett. 1987, 28(6), 641-644.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(00)95801-5

[270]. Gree, R.; Laabassi, M.; Mosset, P.; Carrie, R. Tetrahedron Lett. 1984, 25(34), 3693-3696.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-4039(84)80107-0

[271]. Gree, R.; Laabassi, M.; Mosset, P.; Carrie, R. Tetrahedron Lett. 1985, 26(19), 2317-2318.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(00)95085-8

[272]. Top, S.; Jaouen, G. Tetrahedron Lett. 1978, 19(9), 787-790.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(01)85397-1

[273]. Uemura, M.; Minami, T.; Hirotau, K.; Hayashi, Y. J. Org. Chem. 1989, 54, 469-477.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jo00263a039

[274]. Albert, J.; Davies, S. G. Tetrahedron Lett. 1984, 25, 1897-1900.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(01)90070-X

[275]. Doyle, M. M.; Jackson, W. R.; Perlmutter, P. Tetrahedron Lett. 1989, 30(39), 5357-5360.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(01)93786-4

[276]. Uemura, M.; Minami, T.; Isobe, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Hayashi, Y. Tetrahedron Lett. 1986, 27(8), 967-970.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(00)84150-7

[277]. Marshall, J. A.; Gung, W. Y. Tetrahedron Lett. 1989, 30(3), 309-312.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(00)95187-6

[278]. Nunn, K.; Mosset, P.; Gree, R.; Saalfrank, R. W. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., Eng. 1988, 27(9), 1188-1189.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.198811881

[279]. Roush, W. R.; Park, J. C. J. Org. Chem. 1990, 55(4), 1143-1144.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jo00291a009

[280]. Shin, J. H.; Churchill, D. G.; Parkin, G. J. Organomet. Chem. 2002, 642(1-2), 9-15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-328X(01)01218-9

[281]. Sica, A. M.; Baibich, I. M.; Gigola, C. E. J. Molecular Cat. A: Chem. 2003, 195(1-2), 225-233.

[282]. Tangestaninejad, S.; Habibi, M. H.; Mirkhani, V.; Moghadam, M.; Grivani, G. Inorg. Chem. Commun. 2006, 9(6), 575-578.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.inoche.2006.03.001

[283]. Grivani, G.; Tangestaninejad, S.; Halili, A. Inorg. Chem. Commun. 2007, 10(8), 914-917.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.inoche.2007.01.016

[284]. Shi, Y. L.; Gao, Y. C.; Shi, Q. Z. Organometallics 1978, 6, 1528-1531.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/om00150a027

[285]. Darensbourg, D. J.; Graves, A. H. Inorg. Chem. 1979, 18(5), 1257-1261.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50195a017

[286]. Hyla-Kryspin, I.; Grimme, S. Organometallics 2004, 23(23), 5581-5592.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/om049521b

[287]. Chandra, D.; Lau, K. H.; Chien, W. M.; Garner, M. J. Phys. Chem. Solids 2005, 66(2-4), 241-245.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpcs.2004.10.001

[288]. Dombek, B. D.; Angelci, R. J. Inorg. Chem. 1976, 15(10), 2403-2408.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic50164a019

[289]. Ardon, M.; Hogarth, G.; Oscroft, D. T. W. J. Organomet. Chem. 2004, 689(15), 2429-2435.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2004.04.030

[290]. Guillaumont, D.; Vlek Jr. A.; Daniel, C. J. Phy. Chem. A 2001, 105(7), 1107-1114.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp994435o

[291]. Alamiry, M. A. H.; Brennan, P.; Long, C.; Pryce, M. T. J. Organomet. Chem. 2008, 693(17), 2907-2914.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2008.06.003

[292]. Zhang, X.; Li, Q. S.; Ge, M.; Xie, Y.; King, R. B.; Schaefer, H. F. Organometallics 2 009, 28(9), 2818-2829.

[293]. Palusiak, M.; Rudolf, B.; Zakrzewski, J.; Pfitzner, A.; Zabel, M.; Grabowski, S. J. J. Organomet. Chem. 2006, 691(15), 3232-3238.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2006.03.035

[294]. Huang, Y.; Poissant, R. R. Langmuir 2002, 18(14), 5487-5496.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la020075b

[295]. Zobi, F. Inorg. Chem. 2010, 49(22), 10370-10377.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic101246a
PMid:20968315

[296]. Hermanson, J. R.; Figley, T. M.; Seibert, A. L.; Pinhas, A. R. J. Organomet. Chem. 2008, 693(11), 2061-2064.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2008.02.028

Supporting Agencies

TrendMD

Dimensions - Altmetric - scite_ - PlumX

Downloads and views

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...
License Terms

License Terms

by-nc

Copyright © 2024 by Authors. This work is published and licensed by Atlanta Publishing House LLC, Atlanta, GA, USA. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.eurjchem.com/index.php/eurjchem/terms and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial (CC BY NC) (International, v4.0) License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0). By accessing the work, you hereby accept the Terms. This is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the CC BY NC License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited without any further permission from Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry). No use, distribution, or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Permissions for commercial use of this work beyond the scope of the License (https://www.eurjchem.com/index.php/eurjchem/terms) are administered by Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry).