European Journal of Chemistry

Evaluation of over the counter vaginal lubricants Nonoxynol-9 and KY Jelly as potential inducer of proinflammatory cytokines in human immune cells

Main Article Content

Aladin Siddig
Richard Addo
Kwame Yeboah


Topical microbicides such as Nonoxynol-9 (N9) and KY jelly have been used as vaginal microbicides in clinical trials as anti-HIV-1 products. The objective of this study was to determine if the use of these microbicides may cause production of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. Such cytokines include, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interlukin-1β (IL-1β), interlukin-6 (IL-6), and Interlukin-8 (IL-8). Cellular viability was determined for the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and Macrophages by culturing them for 24 hours in the presence of serial dilutions of product or placebo. Product and placebo dilutions that gave culture viabilities of ≥ 60% compared to control cultures were considered to be nontoxic. The non-toxic dilutions were 1:100 for KY jelly in both PBMCs and Macrophages. Whereas, the non-toxic dilutions were 1:1000 for N9 in both PBMCs and Macrophages. The values of IL1β, TNF-α, were 0.1 < 2.0 pg/mL for both PBMCs and macrophages. The levels of IL-8 ranged between 9-13 pg/mL and 12-16 pg/mL for PBMCs and macrophages, respectively. The levels of IL-6 were 0.11 g/mL and 0.019 pg/mL for PBMCs and macrophages, respectively. The results were not statistically significant in difference for IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 (p > 0.001) when N9 was compared to KY jelly. However, the results were significant when comparing N9 to KY jelly for TNF-α (p < 0.001) production. The two microbicides tested in their non-toxic formulation in the two models of PBMCs and macrophages showed relatively low levels of IL-1b, TNF-α and IL-6. This indicated safety and low toxicity of these microbicide in terms of cytokines release. On the other hand, IL-8 has shown relatively higher levels in all microbicide tested in their non-toxic formulation.


icon graph This Abstract was viewed 1605 times | icon graph Article PDF downloaded 615 times

How to Cite
Siddig, A.; Addo, R.; Yeboah, K. Evaluation of over the Counter Vaginal Lubricants Nonoxynol-9 and KY Jelly As Potential Inducer of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Human Immune Cells. Eur. J. Chem. 2013, 4, 172-175.

Article Details

Crossref - Scopus - Google - European PMC

[1]. Who Notes and News, HIV/AIDS, World Health Forum 1997, 18(3-4), 369-372.

[2]. Bird, K. D. AIDS 1991, 5, 791-796.

[3]. Stephenson, J. JAMA 2000, 284, 949-949.

[4]. Zacharapoulos, V.; Phillips, D. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 1997, 4(4), 465-468.

[5]. Baron, S.; Poast, J.; Nguyen, D.; Cloyd, M. W. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 2001, 17, 997-1002.

[6]. Milman, G.; Sharma, O. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 1994, 10, 1305-1312.

[7]. Bomsel, M. Nat. Med. 1997, 3, 42-47.

[8]. Zacharopoulos, V. R.; Phillips, D. M. Microb. Pathog. 1997, 23, 225-233.

[9]. Phillips, D. M.; Bourinbaiar, A. S. Virology 1992, 186, 261-273.

[10]. Tan, X.; Phillips, D. M. Arch. Virol. 1996, 141, 1177-1189.

[11]. Smith, P. D.; Li, L.; Meng, G. J. Infect. Dis. 1999, 179, S436-S440.

[12]. Kabat, D.; Kozak, S. L.; Wehrly, K.; Chesebro, B. J. Virol. 1994, 68, 2570-2577.

[13]. Ariyoshi, K.; Harwood, E.; Chiengsong-Popov, R.; Weber, J. Lancet 1992, 340, 1257-1258.

[14]. Clark, S. J.; Saag, M. S.; Decker, W. D. Campbell-Hill, S.; Roberson, J. L.; Veldkamp, P. J.; Kappes, J. C.; Hahn, B. H.; Shaw, G. M. N. Engl. J. Med. 1991, 324, 954-960.

[15]. Daar, E. S.; Moudgil, T.; Meyer, R. D.; Ho, D. D. N. Engl. J. Med. 1991, 324, 961-964.

[16]. Connick, E.; Marr, D. G.; Zhang, X. Q.; Clark, S. J.; Saag, M. S.; Schooley, R. T.; Curiel, T. J. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 1996, 12, 1129-1140.

[17]. Lawn, S. D.; Subbarao, S.; Wright, Jr. T. C.; Evans-Strickfaden, T.; Ellerbrock, T. V.; Lennox, J. L.; Butera, S. T.; Hart, C. E. J. Infec. Diseases 2000, 181, 1950-1956.

[18]. Sykes, J. A.; Whitescarver, J.; Jernstrom, P.; Nolan, J. F.; Bayatt, P. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1970, 45, 107-122.

[19]. Huramato, H. Acta Obstet. Gynaecol. Jpn. 1972, 19, 47-58.

[20]. Fogh, J.; Wright, W. C.; Loveless, J. D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1977, 58, 209-214.

[21]. Jennings, R.; Clegg, A. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 1993, 32, 71-82.

[22]. Malkovsky, M.; Newell, A.; Dalgleish, A. G. Lancet 1988, 1, 645-645.

[23]. Patton, D. L.; Kidder, G. G.; Sweeney, Y. C.; Rabe, L. K.; Clark, A. M.; Hillier, S. L. Sex. Transm. Dis. 1996, 23, 461-464.

[24]. Stafford, M. K.; Ward, H.; Flanagan, A.; Rosenstein, I. J.; Taylor-Robinson, D.; Smith, J. R.; Weber, J.; Kitchen, V. S. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 1998, 17, 327-331.

[25]. Van Damme, L.; Ramjee, G.; Alary, M.; Vuylsteke, B.; Chandeying, V.; Rees, H.; Sirivongrangson, P.; Mukenge-Tshibaka, L.; Ettiegne-Traore, V.; Uaheowitchai, C.; Karim, S. S.; Masse, B.; Perriens, J.; Laga, M. Lancet 2002, 360, 971-977.

[26]. Patton, D. L.; Cosgrove Sweeney, Y. T.; Rabe, L. K.; Hillier, S. L. Sex. Transm. Dis. 2002, 29, 581-587.

[27]. Phillips, D. M.; Taylor, C. L.; Zacharopoulos, V. R.; Maguire, R. A. Contraception 2000, 62, 149-154.

[28]. Fichorova, R. N.; Zhou, F.; Ratnam, V.; Atanssova, V.; Jiang, S.; Strick, N.; Neurath, A. R. Antimicrob. Agents Ch. 2005, 323-335.
PMid:15616312 PMCid:538889

[29]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Center for HIV, STD and TB prevention. August 2000.

[30]. Fichorova, R. N.; Tucker, L. D.; Anderson, D. J. J. Inect. Dis. 2001, 184(4), 418-428.

Supporting Agencies

Univesity of Charleston, School of Pharmacy and Center for Drug Delivery, College of Pharmacy, Mercer University
Most read articles by the same author(s)

Dimensions - Altmetric - scite_ - PlumX

Downloads and views


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...
License Terms

License Terms


Copyright © 2024 by Authors. This work is published and licensed by Atlanta Publishing House LLC, Atlanta, GA, USA. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial (CC BY NC) (International, v4.0) License ( By accessing the work, you hereby accept the Terms. This is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the CC BY NC License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited without any further permission from Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry). No use, distribution, or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Permissions for commercial use of this work beyond the scope of the License ( are administered by Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry).