European Journal of Chemistry

Complexation equilibria of ambroxol hydrochloride in solution by potentiometric and conductometric methods


Main Article Content

Ahmed Hosny Naggar
Hammed Mohammed Al-Saidi
Othman Abd El-Moaty Farghaly
Taher Mohammed Hassan
Salma Zaidan Mohamed Bortata


The formation constants of Li(I), Mg(II), Sr(II), Ca(II), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Ba(II), Pb(II), Al(III), Cr(III), Fe(III) and Th(IV) ions with ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB) were calculated using the half-n value. In presence of 0.1 M NaNO3, metal ions such as Zn(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), Cr(III), Li(I), Mg(II) and Al(III) forms three types of metal-ligand complexes (1:1, 1:2 and/or 1:3), while Sr(II) and Co(II) tend to form two types of metal complexes 1:1 and 1:2 (M:L). For ligand protonation constants, two logarithmic association constant values were calculated by the half-n method and are 10.7 and 7.6, respectively. The effect of ionic strength on stability constant of AMP, with different metal ions viz. Fe(III), Th(IV), Al(III), Cr(III) and Cu(II) was studied. Based on relationship between the ionic strength studied values and the 1st stability constants (Log K1H), we can conclude that the stability constants of the formed metal-ligand complex (1:1) were decreased as the ionic strength increased. The stoichiometry of the formed complexes in solution were determined by conductometric method and it is found to be of 1:1, 1:2 and/or 1:3 (M:L) complex species is formed in alkaline media. Also, study the species distribution diagrams of AMP for the calculated mole fraction αML and αML2 were discussed.

icon graph This Abstract was viewed 1850 times | icon graph Article PDF downloaded 714 times

How to Cite
Naggar, A. H.; Al-Saidi, H. M.; Farghaly, O. A. E.-M.; Hassan, T. M.; Bortata, S. Z. M. Complexation Equilibria of Ambroxol Hydrochloride in Solution by Potentiometric and Conductometric Methods. Eur. J. Chem. 2018, 9, 49-56.

Article Details

Crossref - Scopus - Google - European PMC

[1]. The Merck Index, An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals, 13th Ed., Merck and Co. Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, 2002.

[2]. Heinanen, M.; Barbas, C. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2001, 24, 1005-1010.

[3]. Olivieri, D.; Zavattini, G.; Tomasini, G.; Damiotti, S. Respiration 1987, 51, 42-51.

[4]. Fraschini, F.; Scaglione, F.; Scarpazza, G.; Marchi, F.; Calzavara, M. Curr. Ther. Res. 1988, 43, 734-742.

[5]. VanPetten, G. R.; Mears, G. J.; Taylor, P. J. Am. J. Obs. Gynecol. 1978, 130, 35-40.

[6]. Salzer, H.; Weidinger, H.; Simbruner, G.; Vytiska-Binstorfer, E. Z Geburtshilfe. Perinatol. 1986, 190, 49-59.

[7]. British Pharmacopeia, Vol II, British Pharmacopeia Commission, 1529, 2014.

[8]. India Pharmacopeia, Vol II, India Pharmacopeia Commission, Ghaziabad, 1025, 2014.

[9]. Hambley, T. W. Dalton Trans, 2007, 4929-4937.

[10]. Orvig, C.; Abrams, M. J. Chem. Rev. 1999, 99, 2201-2203.

[11]. Guo, Z.; Sadler, P. J. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 1999, 38, 1512-1531.<1512::AID-ANIE1512>3.0.CO;2-Y

[12]. Sadler, P. J.; Zijian, G. Pure Appl. Chem. 1998, 4, 863-871.

[13]. Bruijnincx, P. C. A.; Sadler, P. J. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 2008, 12, 197-206.

[14]. Rossotti, F. J. C.; Rossotti, H. The Determination of Stability Constants and Other Equilibrium Constants in Solution, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1961.

[15]. Amrallah, A. H.; Abdalla, N. A.; El-Haty, E. Y. Talanta 1998, 46, 491-500.

[16]. Abdel-Gaber, A. A.; Farghaly, O. A.; Ghandour, M. A.; El-Said, H. S. Monatsh. Chem. 2000, 131, 1031-1038.

[17]. Abdel-Latif, N. M.; Abdel-Wadood, H. M.; Farghaly, O. A. Egypt J. Anal. Chem. 2006, 15, 71.

[18]. Ghandour, M. A.; Aboul-Kasim, E.; Amrallah, A. H.; Abdalla, N. A.; Farghaly, O. A. J. Indian Chem. Soc. 1999, 76, 480-482.

[19]. Ghandour, M. A.; Aboul-Kasim, E.; Amrallah, A. H.; Farghaly, O. A. J. Indian Chem. Soc. 1993, 70, 615-617.

[20]. Farghaly, O. A.; Mohamed, N. A.; Gahlan, A. A.; El-Mottaleb, M. A. Indian J. Anal. Chem. 2008, 7, 294-300.

[21]. Naggar, A. H.; Mauof, H. A.; Ekshiba, A. A.; Farghaly, O. A. Pharm. Chem. J. 2016, 3, 125-137.

[22]. Yousef, W. M.; Alenezi, K.; Naggar, A. H.; Hassan, T. M.; Bortata, S. Z.; Farghaly, O. A. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 2017, 12, 1146-1156.

[23]. Farghaly, O. A.; Al-Saidi, H. M.; Naggar, A. H.; El-Mabrouk, I. M. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 2017, 12, 9865-9881.

[24]. Al-Rashdi, A. A.; Naggar, A. H.; Farghaly, O. A.; Mauof, H. A.; Ekshiba, A. A. Am. J. Anal. Chem. 2018, 9, 99-112.

[25]. Farghaly, O. A.; Mohamed, N. A.; Hazzazi, O. A., Gahlan, A. A.; Mottaleb, M. A. Res. Rev. Electrochem., An Indian J. 2010, 2, 6-14.

[26]. Ghandour, M. A.; Azab, H. A.; Hassan A.; Ali, A. M. Monatsh. Chem. 1992, 123, 51-58.

[27]. Quang, D. T.; Kim, J. S.; Chem. Rev. 2010, 110, 6280-6301.

[28]. Daniele, G. P.; Zerbinati, O.; Zelano, V.; Ostacoli, G. J. Chem. Soc. Dalton Trans. 1991, 2711-2715.

[29]. Levinson, W.; Oppermann, H.; Jackson, J. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1980, 606, 170-180.

[30]. Chain-Stier, C. H.; Minkel, D.; Petering, D. H. Bioinorg. Chem. 1976, 6, 203-217.

[31]. Kirschner, S.; Wei, K. Y.; Francis, D.; Bergam, G. J. J. Med. Chem. 1966, 9, 369-372.

[32]. Meloun, M.; Syrovy, T.; Vrana, A. Talanta 2004, 62, 511-522.

[33]. Mohamed, H. A.; Wadood, H. M. A.; Farghaly, O. A. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2002, 28, 819-826.

[34]. Irving, H.; Rossoti, H. S. J. Chem. Soc. 1953, 3397-3405.

[35]. Irving, H.; Williams, R. J. P. Nature 1948, 162, 746-747.

[36]. Wang, B.; Chung, C. S. J. Chem. Soc. Dalton Trans. 1982, 2565-2566.

[37]. Paoleltti, P.; Fabbrizzi, L.; Barbucci, R. Inorg. Chem. 1971, 12, 1861-1964.

[38]. Beck, M. T.; Chemistry of Complex Equilibria, Van Nostrand Reinhold, London, 1970.

Supporting Agencies

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Dimensions - Altmetric - scite_ - PlumX

Downloads and views


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...
License Terms

License Terms


Copyright © 2024 by Authors. This work is published and licensed by Atlanta Publishing House LLC, Atlanta, GA, USA. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial (CC BY NC) (International, v4.0) License ( By accessing the work, you hereby accept the Terms. This is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the CC BY NC License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited without any further permission from Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry). No use, distribution, or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Permissions for commercial use of this work beyond the scope of the License ( are administered by Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry).