European Journal of Chemistry

Electronic structure and dosage correlation of 1,4-benzodiazepines


Main Article Content

Raghdaa Adel Massoud
Mohamed Abdalla Makhyoun


Density functional theory was used to calculate the electronic structure of 20 selected 1,4-benzodiazepine derivatives. Certain parameters were extracted from the theoretical calculations, including the proton affinity of N1, the total energy, HOMO and LUMO energies, the total positive atomic charge, dipole moment and molecular volume. These parameters were used for the correlation with the minimum effective dose acting on human. The correlation was performed by applying linear least square method. Seven parameters were found to afford good fit. Clorazepate, one of the benzodiazepines, was studied extensively, it contains a carboxylate group, which can act as an ordinary molecule or zwitterions, where the ionisable proton migrates to N1. The energy gap between the two forms was found to be strongly dependent on the solvent dielectric constant.

icon graph This Abstract was viewed 1191 times | icon graph Article PDF downloaded 519 times

How to Cite
Massoud, R. A.; Makhyoun, M. A. Electronic Structure and Dosage Correlation of 1,4-Benzodiazepines. Eur. J. Chem. 2019, 10, 108-112.

Article Details

Crossref - Scopus - Google - European PMC

[1]. US Drug Enforcement Administration. (2003). [Accessed Date: March 19, 2019].

[2]. Bertilsson, L. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. Suppl. 1978, 274, 19-26.

[3]. [Accessed Date: March 19, 2019].

[4]. Carlo, P.; Finallo, R.; Ledda, A.; Brambilla, G. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 1989, 12, 34-41.

[5]. [Accessed Date: March 19, 2019].

[6]. [Accessed Date: March 19, 2019].

[7]. [Accessed Date: March 19, 2019].

[8]. [Accessed Date: March 19, 2019].

[9]. Parr, G. R.; Yang, W., Density Functional Theory of Atoms and Molecules, Oxford University Press, 1994.

[10]. Becke, A. D. Phys. Rev. A 1988, 38, 3098-3100.

[11]. Perdew, J. P. Phys. Rev. B 1986, 33, 8822-8824.

[12]. Dunning, H. T. J. J. Chem. Phys. 1989, 90, 1007-1023.

[13]. Neese, F. Comput. Mol. Sci. 2012, 2, 73-78.

[14]. Valiev, M.; Bylaska, E. J.; Govind, N.; Kowalski, K.; Straatsma, T. P.; Van Dam, H. J. J. Comput. Phys. Commun. 2019, 181, 1477-1489.

[15]. McGrath, C.; Burrows, G. D.; Norman, T. R. The benzodiazepines: A brief review of pharmacology and therapeutics, Birkhauser Verlag, Switzerland, 2000.

[16]. Gaussian 03. Frisch, M. J.; Trucks, G. W.; Schlegel, H. B.; Scuseria, G. E.; Robb, M. A.; Cheeseman, J. R.; Montgomery, J. A. Jr.; Vreven, T.; Kudin, K. N.; Burant, J. C.; Millam, J. M.; Iyengar, S. S.; Tomasi, J.; Barone, V.; Mennucci, B.; Cossi, M.; Scalmani, G.; Rega, N.;. Petersson, G. A.; Nakatsuji, H.; Hada, M.; Ehara, M.; Toyota, K.; Fukuda, R.; Hasegawa, J.; Ishida, M.; Nakajima, T.; Honda, Y.; Kitao, O.; Nakai, H.; Klene, M.; Li, X.; Knox, J. E.; Hratchian, H. P.; Cross, J. B.; Adamo, C.; Jaramillo, J.; Gomperts, R.; Stratmann, R. E.; Yazyev, O.; Austin, A. J.; Cammi, R.; Pomelli, C.; Ochterski, J. W.; Ayala, P. Y.; Morokuma, K.; Voth, G. A.; Salvador, P.; Dannenberg, J. J.; Zakrzewski, V. G.; Dapprich, S.; Daniels, A. D.; Strain, M. C.; Farkas, O.; Malick, D. K.; Rabuck, A. D.; Raghavachari, K.; Foresman, J. B.; Ortiz, J. V.; Cui, Q.; Baboul, A. G.; Clifford, S.; Cioslowski, J.; Stefanov, B. B.; Liu, G.; Liashenko, A.; Piskorz, P.; Komaromi, I.; Martin, R. L.; Fox, D. J.; Keith, T.; Al-Laham, M. A.; Peng, C. Y.; Nanayakkara, A.; Challacombe, M.; Gill, P. M. W.; Johnson, B.; Chen, W.; Wong, M. W.; Gonzalez, C.; Pople, J. A. Gaussian, Inc., Pittsburgh PA, 2003.


Dimensions - Altmetric - scite_ - PlumX

Downloads and views


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...
License Terms

License Terms


Copyright © 2024 by Authors. This work is published and licensed by Atlanta Publishing House LLC, Atlanta, GA, USA. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial (CC BY NC) (International, v4.0) License ( By accessing the work, you hereby accept the Terms. This is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the CC BY NC License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited without any further permission from Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry). No use, distribution, or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Permissions for commercial use of this work beyond the scope of the License ( are administered by Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry).