European Journal of Chemistry

Development of a new highly sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method for the determination of cobalt at nanotrace levels in various complex matrices using N,N’-bis(salicylidene)-ethylenediamine

Crossmark


Main Article Content

Muhammad Jamaluddin Ahmed
Tahmina Happy

Abstract

A new spectrophotometric reagent, N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-ethylenediamine (Salen), has been synthesized and characterized through novel reaction techniques. A very simple, ultrasensitive, and nonextractive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of the picotrace amount of cobalt (II) using Salen. Salen undergoes a reaction in a slightly acidic solution (0.001-0.003 M H2S04) with cobalt in 20% ethanol to give a light orange chelate, which has an absorption maximum at 459 nm. The reaction is instantaneous, and the absorbance remains stable for over 24 hours. The average molar absorption co-efficient and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 6.04×105 L/mol.cm and 5.0 ng/cm2 of Co, respectively. Linear calibration graphs were obtained for 0.001-40 mg/Lof Co with a detection limit of 0.1 µg/L and RSD of 0-2 %. The stoichiometric composition of the chelate is 1:1 (Co:Salen). A large excess of over 60 cations, anions and some common complexing agents such as chloride, azide, tartrate, EDTA, SCN- etc. do not interfere in the determination. The developed method was successfully used in the determination of cobalt in several Certified Reference Materials (Alloys, steel, bovine liver, human hair, drinking water, sewage sludge, soil, and sediments) as well as in some environmental waters (Potable and polluted), biological fluids (Human blood, urine, and milk), soil samples, food samples (Vegetables, rice, and wheat) and pharmaceutical samples and solutions containing both cobalt (II) and cobalt (III) as well as complex synthetic mixtures. The results of the proposed method for assessing biological, soil, food and vegetable samples were comparable with ICP-OES and AAS were found to be in excellent agreement. The method has high precision and accuracy (s = ±0.01 for 0.5 mg/L).


icon graph This Abstract was viewed 898 times | icon graph Article PDF downloaded 212 times

How to Cite
(1)
Ahmed, M. J.; Happy, T. Development of a New Highly Sensitive and Selective Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Cobalt at Nanotrace Levels in Various Complex Matrices Using N,N’-bis(salicylidene)-Ethylenediamine. Eur. J. Chem. 2022, 13, 20-32.

Article Details

Share
Crossref - Scopus - Google - European PMC
References

[1]. Cobalt (Co) - Chemical properties, Health and Environmental effects

https://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/co.htm (accessed Nov 6, 2021).

[2]. Jensen, A. A.; Tüchsen, F. Cobalt Exposure and Cancer Risk. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 1990, 20 (6), 427-437.
https://doi.org/10.3109/10408449009029330

[3]. Barborik, M.; Dusek, J. Cardiomyopathy Accompaning Industrial Cobalt Exposure. Br. Heart J. 1972, 34 (1), 113-116.
https://doi.org/10.1136/hrt.34.1.113

[4]. Venugopal, B.; Luckey, T. D. Metal Toxicity in Mammals - Chemica; Kluwer Academic/Plenum: Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1978.

[5]. Battaglia, V.; Compagnone, A.; Bandino, A.; Bragadin, M.; Rossi, C. A.; Zanetti, F.; Colombatto, S.; Grillo, M. A.; Toninello, A. Cobalt Induces Oxidative Stress in Isolated Liver Mitochondria Responsible for Permeability Transition and Intrinsic Apoptosis in Hepatocyte Primary Cultures. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 2009, 41 (3), 586-594.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2008.07.012

[6]. Taylor, D. M.; Williams, D. R. Trace Elements Medicine and Chelation Therapy; Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, England, 1995.

[7]. De Boeck, M.; Lardau, S.; Buchet, J.-P.; Kirsch-Volders, M.; Lison, D. Absence of Significant Genotoxicity in Lymphocytes and Urine from Workers Exposed to Moderate Levels of Cobalt-Containing Dust: A Cross-Sectional Study. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2000, 36 (2), 151-160.
https://doi.org/10.1002/1098-2280(2000)36:2<151::AID-EM10>3.0.CO;2-V

[8]. De Boeck, M. Cobalt and Antimony: Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity. Mutat. Res. 2003, 533 (1-2), 135-152.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2003.07.012

[9]. Verougstraete, V.; Mallants, A.; Buchet, J.-P.; Swennen, B.; Lison, D. Lung Function Changes in Workers Exposed to Cobalt Compounds: A 13-Year Follow-Up. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2004, 170 (2), 162-166.
https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200310-1357OC

[10]. Lison, D. Update on the Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity of Cobalt Compounds. Occup. Environ. Med. 2001, 58 (10), 619-625.
https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.58.10.619

[11]. De Boeck, M.; Lombaert, N.; De Backer, S.; Finsy, R.; Lison, D.; Kirsch-Volders, M. In Vitro Genotoxic Effects of Different Combinations of Cobalt and Metallic Carbide Particles. Mutagenesis 2003, 18 (2), 177-186.
https://doi.org/10.1093/mutage/18.2.177

[12]. Casarett, L.; Doull, J.; Klaasen, C. D. Casarett & Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th ed.; McGraw-Hill: New York, NY, 2001.

[13]. Sunday Nworie, F. Bis(Salicylidene)Ethylenediamine(Salen) and Bis (Salicylidene)Ethylenediamine-Metal Complexes: From Structure to Biological Activity. J. Anal. Pharm. Res. 2016, 3 (6), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.15406/japlr.2016.03.00076.
https://doi.org/10.15406/japlr.2016.03.00076

[14]. Dhahir, S. A.; Bakir, S. R. Cloud Point Extraction Spectrophotometric Determination of Copper, Chromium and Cobalt by Salen as Reagent in Wastewater of Iraq. Asian J. Chem. 2014, 26 (16), 5305-5310.
https://doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2014.17754

[15]. Subramanyam Sarma, L.; Rajesh Kumar, J.; Jaya Kumar, C.; Varada Reddy, A. A Sensitive Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Cobalt(II) in Real Samples Using Pyridoxal-4-Phenyl-3-Thiosemicar bozone. Anal. Lett. 2003, 36 (3), 605-618.
https://doi.org/10.1081/AL-120018251

[16]. Tarighat, M. A.; Afkhami, A. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Cu(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) Using Ratio Spectra-Continuous Wavelet Transformation in Some Food and Environ-mental Samples. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 2012, 23 (7), 1312-1319.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50532012000700016

[17]. Reddy, B. Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Cobalt Using Cyanex-272. Talanta 1994, 41 (8), 1335-1339.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0039-9140(94)E0037-R

[18]. Kuliyev, K. A.; Verdizadeh, N. A.; Suleymanova, G. S. Spectrophoto-metric Determination of Cobalt (II) with 2, 6-Dithiolphenol and Its Derivatives in the Presence of Hydrophobic Amines. Am. J. Chem. 2016, 6 (4), 95-103.

[19]. Devi, V. S. A.; Reddy, V. K. Spectrophotometric Determination of Iron(II) and Cobalt(II) by Direct, Derivative, and Simultaneous Methods Using 2-Hydroxy-1-Naphthaldehyde-p-Hydroxybenzoic hydrazone. Int. J. Anal. Chem. 2012, 2012, 1-12.
https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/981758

[20]. Amin, A. S. Study on the Solid Phase Extraction and Spectrophoto-metric Determination of Cobalt with 5-(2-Benzothiazolylazo)-8-Hydroxyquinolene. Arab. J. Chem. 2014, 7 (5), 715-721.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2010.12.008

[21]. Tsumaki, T. Nebenvalenzringverbindungen. IV. Über Einige Inner-komplexe Kobaltsalze Der Oxyaldimine. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 1938, 13 (2), 252-260.
https://doi.org/10.1246/bcsj.13.252

[22]. Elsherif, K. M.; Zubi, A.; Shawish, H.; Almelah, E.; Abajja, S. Bis(Salicylidene)Ethylenediamine (Salen) in VIS Absorption Spectral Studies of N, Ifferent Solvents. Iraqi J. Sci. 2019, 60 (2), 204-210.

https://doi.org/10.24996/ijs.2019.60.

[23]. Ghann, W.; Sobhi, H.; Kang, H.; Chavez-Gil, T.; Nesbitt, F.; Uddin, J. Synthesis and Characterization of Free and Copper (II) Complex of N,N′-Bis(Salicylidene)Ethylenediamine for Application in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells. J. Mater. Sci. Chem. Eng. 2017, 05 (06), 46-66.
https://doi.org/10.4236/msce.2017.56005

[24]. Diehl, H.; Hach, C. C.; Bailar, J. C., Jr. Bis(N,N '-Disalicylalethylene diamine)-μ-Aquodicobalt(II). In Inorganic Syntheses; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2007; pp 196-201.
https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470132340.ch53

[25]. Bakir, S. R.; Dhahir, S. A. Cloud Point Extraction spectrophotometric Determination of Trace Amounts of Nickel by SALEN as reagent in waste water of Iraq. Online Inter. Interdiscip. Res. J. 2013, 3 (2), 9-21. https://www.oiirj.org/oiirj/nov2013-special-issue/02.pdf (accessed Nov 6, 2021).

[26]. Ibraheem, K. R.; Al-Hity, W. F.; Al-Hadithi, A. Synthesis and photolysis of some transition metal complexes of Schiff base ligand derived from ethylenediamine and salicylicaldehyde. J. Al-Anbar Univ. Pure Sci. 2007, 1 (1), 21-27.

https://www.iasj.net/iasj/download/379a81552f16d9bf (accessed Nov 6, 2021).

[27]. Vogel, A. I.; Vogel's Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 5th ed., ELBS, U.K., 1989.

[28]. Jamaluddin Ahmed, M.; Jakir Hossan, K. A Rapid Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Cobalt in Industrial, Environmental, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Soil Samples Using Bis(5-Bromo salicylaldehyde)Orthophenylenediamine. J. Iran. Chem. Soc. 2008, 5 (4), 677-688.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03246149

[29]. Mukherji, A. K. Analytical Chemistry of Zirconium and Hafnium; Pergamon: Oxford, New Zealand, 1970.

[30]. Pal, B. K.; Chaudhury, B. Triazene-N-Oxides as New Type of Fluorimetric Reagents: II. Determination of Niobium with 3-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)-1-Phenyltriazene-N-Oxide. Mikrochim. Acta 1985, 85 (5-6), 437-446.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01201540

[31]. Busev, A. I.; Tiptsova, V. G.; Ivanov, V. M. Analytical Chemistry of Rare Elements; Rosinkin, A., Translator; Central Books: London, England, 1982.

[32]. Al-Kharafi, F. M.; Badawy, W. A. Electrochemical Behaviour of Vanadium in Aqueous Solutions of Different PH. Electrochim. Acta 1997, 42 (4), 579-586.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-4686(96)00202-2

[33]. Sandell, E. B. Colorimetric Determination of Traces of Metals, 3rd ed.; John Wiley & Sons: Nashville, TN, 1959.

[34]. Ojeda, C. B.; de Torres, A. G.; Rojas, F. S.; Pavón, J. M. C. Fluorimetric Determination of Trace Amounts of Gallium in Biological Tissues. Analyst 1987, 112 (11), 1499-1501.
https://doi.org/10.1039/AN9871201499

[35]. Pal, B.; Singh, K.; Dutta, K. Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Molybdenum in Some Real and Environmental Samples. Talanta 1992, 39 (8), 971-975.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0039-9140(92)80280-Q

[36]. Job, P. Formation and Stability of Inorganic Complexes in Solution. Ann. Chim. (Paris) 1928, 9, 113-203.

[37]. Yoe, J. H.; Jones, A. L. Colorimetric Determination of Iron with Disodium-1,2-Dihydroxybenzene-3,5-Disulfonate. Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 1944, 16 (2), 111-115.
https://doi.org/10.1021/i560126a015

[38]. Mitra, S. Sample Preparation Techniques in Analytical Chemistry; Mitra, S., Ed.; Wiley-Interscience: New York, 2007.

[39]. Sun, Y. C.; Yang, J. Y.; Tzeng, S. R. Rapid Determination of Molybdate in Natural Waters by Coprecipitation and Neutron Activation Analysis. Analyst 1999, 124 (3), 421-424.
https://doi.org/10.1039/a809596e

[40]. Greenberg, E. A.; Clesceri, S. L.; Eaton, D. A.; (Eds.), "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater," 18th edn, American Public Health Association, Washington D. C., 1992, pp.3-253.

[41]. American Public Health Association. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 23rd ed.; Rice, E. W., Baird, R. B., Eaton, A. D., Eds.; American Water Works Association, 2017.

[42]. Ahmed, M. J.; Ahsan, A.; Haque, M. R.; Siraj, S.; Bhuiyan, M. H. R.; Bhattacharjee, S. C.; Islam, S. Physicochemical Assessment of Surface and Groundwater Quality of the Greater Chittagong Region of Bangladesh. Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem. 2010, 11 (2), 1-11.

[43]. Bangladesh national drinking water quality survey of 2009, Rick Johnston of Eawag, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Planning Division, Ministry of Planning, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, UNICEF, 2011.

https://washdata.org/sites/default/files/ documents/reports/2019-06/Bangladesh-2009-MICS-water-quality-report.pdf (accessed Nov 6, 2021).

[44]. Khayatian, G.; Hassanpoor, S.; Azar, A. R. J.; Mohebbi, S. Spectrophoto-metric Determination of Trace Amounts of Uranium(VI) Using Modified Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Environmental and Biological Samples. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 2013, 24 (11), 1808-1817. https://doi.org/10.5935/0103-5053.20130226.
https://doi.org/10.5935/0103-5053.20130226

[45]. Stahr, H. M. Analytical Methods in Toxicology; John Wiley & Sons: Nashville, TN, 1991.

[46]. Unice, K. M.; Monnot, A. D.; Gaffney, S. H.; Tvermoes, B. E.; Thuett, K. A.; Paustenbach, D. J.; Finley, B. L. Inorganic Cobalt Supplementation: Prediction of Cobalt Levels in Whole Blood and Urine Using a Biokinetic Model. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2012, 50 (7), 2456-2461.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012.04.009

[47]. Packer, M. Cobalt Cardiomyopathy: A Critical Reappraisal in Light of a Recent Resurgence. Circ. Heart Fail. 2016, 9 (12), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1161/circheartfailure.116.003604.
https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.116.003604

[48]. Sanjari, M.; Gholamhosseinian, A.; Nakhaee, N.; Mashrooteh, M., Assessment of Cobalt Status: A Comparison between Goiterous Children and Healthy Control Subjects. Endocr. Abstr. 2008, 16, 706.

[49]. Jackson, M. Soil Chemical Analysis: Advanced Course; Parallel Press, 2005.

[50]. Abrarin, S.; Ahmed, M. J., "A Highly Sensitive and Selective Spectro-photometric Method for the Determination of Vanadium at Nanotrace Levels in Some Environmental, Biological, Soil, Food, and Pharmaceutical Samples Using Salicylaldehyde-Benzoylhydrazone." Eur. J. Chem. 2020, 11 (4), 385-395.
https://doi.org/10.5155/eurjchem.11.4.385-395.2030

[51]. Ahmed, M. J.; Islam, M. T.; Aziz, S. A Highly Selective and Sensitive Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Lead at Ultra-Trace Levels in Some Real, Environmental, Biological, Food and Soil Samples Using 5,7-Dibromo-8-Hydroxyquinoline. Chem. Sci. Int. J. 2019, 26 (2), 1-19.
https://doi.org/10.9734/CSJI/2019/v26i230087

[52]. Tazul Islam, M.; Jamaluddin Ahmed, M. A Simple Spectrophotometric Method for the Trace Determination of Zinc in Some Real, Environmental, Biological, Pharmaceutical, Milk and Soil Samples Using 5,7- Dibromo-8-Hydroxyquinoline. Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem. 2013, 14 (1), 1-15.

[53]. Ahmed, M. J.; Uddin, M. N., "A Simple Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Cobalt in Industrial, Environmental, Biological and Soil Samples Using Bis(Salicylaldehyde)Orthophenylenediamine." Chemosphere 2007, 67 (10), 2020-2027.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.11.020

Supporting Agencies

TrendMD

Dimensions - Altmetric - scite_ - PlumX

Downloads and views

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...
License Terms

License Terms

by-nc

Copyright © 2024 by Authors. This work is published and licensed by Atlanta Publishing House LLC, Atlanta, GA, USA. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.eurjchem.com/index.php/eurjchem/terms and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial (CC BY NC) (International, v4.0) License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0). By accessing the work, you hereby accept the Terms. This is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the CC BY NC License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited without any further permission from Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry). No use, distribution, or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Permissions for commercial use of this work beyond the scope of the License (https://www.eurjchem.com/index.php/eurjchem/terms) are administered by Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry).