European Journal of Chemistry

A Validated HPTLC Densitometric Method for Quantitative Determination of Zanamivir in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulation


Main Article Content

Mohammed Al Bratty
Safaa Fathy Saleh
Hassan Ahmad Alhazmi
Sadique Akhtar Javed
Adel Mohammed Ahmed
Waquar Ahsan


The main purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for quantitative determination of an antiviral agent, zanamivir in pure drug and diskhaler powder formulation. Chromatography was performed on aluminum TLC plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F254, employing a mixture of chloroform:methanol:ammonia (9.5:3.2:0.2,v:v:v) as mobile phase. The TLC scanner was operated in the absorbance mode at a wavelength of 230 nm for evaluation of chromatograms. The system has given well resolved peak of zanamivir (Rf = 0.56). The linearity of the method was established in the range of 20-300 ng/spot; correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9995. The low values of limit of detection and limit of quantification (12.4 and 37.5 ng/spot, respectively) have demonstrated the sensitivity of the developed method. The reported method was precise in both intra-day as well as inter-day analysis; % RSD of peak area was found to be less than 2%, and has an accuracy within 100 ± 2%. The developed method has a potential to quantify zanamivir from its diskhaler formulation without any interference from other components. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by excellent recovery of analyte (99.8%) from diskhaler formulation. The current analytical method can be applied for routine analysis of zanamivir in pure form and pharmaceutical formulation in quality control laboratories.


icon graph This Abstract was viewed 1758 times | icon graph Article PDF downloaded 660 times

How to Cite
Al Bratty, M.; Saleh, S. F.; Alhazmi, H. A.; Javed, S. A.; Ahmed, A. M.; Ahsan, W. A Validated HPTLC Densitometric Method for Quantitative Determination of Zanamivir in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulation. Eur. J. Chem. 2018, 9, 115-120.

Article Details

Crossref - Scopus - Google - European PMC

[1]. Erk, N. J. Liq. Chromatogr. Rel. Technol. 2004, 27, 1541-1552.

[2]. Hayden, F. G.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Treanor, J. J.; Fleming, D. M.; Aoki, F. Y.; Nicholson, K. G.; Bohnen, A. M.; Hirst, H. M.; Keene, O.; Wightman, K. N. Engl. J. Med. 1997, 337, 874-880.

[3]. McKimm-Breschkin, J. L.; Sahasrabudhe, A.; Blick, T. J.; McDonald, M.; Colman, P. M.; Hart, G. L.; Bethell, R. C.; Varghese, J. N. J. Virol. 1998, 72, 2456-2462.

[4]. Muramoto, Y.; Le, T. Q. M.; Phuong, L. S.; Nguyen, T.; Nguyen, T. H.; Sakai-Tagawa, Y.; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, T.; Kida, H.; Kawaoka, Y. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 2006, 68, 527-531.

[5]. Colman, P. M. Neuraminidase: enzyme and antigen. In: The influenza viruses; Krug, R. M.; Plenum Press: New York, USA, 1989, pp. 175-218.

[6]. Moscona, A. N. Engl. J. Med. 2005, 353, 2633-2636.

[7]. Govorkova, E. A.; Leneva, I. A.; Goloubeva, O. G.; Bush, K.; Webster, R. G. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001, 45, 2723-2732.

[8]. Woods, J. M.; Bethell, R. C.; Coates, J. A.; Healy, N.; Hiscox, S. A.; Pearson, B. A.; Ryan, D. M.; Ticehurst, J.; Tilling, J.; Walcott, S. M.; Penn, C. R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1993, 37, 1473-1479.

[9]. Escuret, V.; Frobert, E.; Bouscambert-Duchamp, M.; Sabatier, M.; Grog, I.; Valette, M.; Lina, B.; Morfin, F.; Ferraris, O. J Clin. Virol. 2008, 41, 25-28.

[10]. De Jong, M. D.; Tran, T. T.; Truong, H. K.; Vo, M. H.; Smith, G. J.; Nguyen, V. C.; Bach, V. C.; Phan, T. Q.; Do, Q. H.; Guan, Y.; Peiris, J. S.; Tran, T. H.; Farrar, J. N. Engl. J. Med. 2005, 353, 2667-2672.

[11]. Gupta, R. K.; Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S.; Jong, M. D.; Hien, T. T.; Farrar, J. N. Engl. J. Med. 2006, 354, 1423-1424.

[12]. Reddy, C. M. B.; Subbareddy, G. V. J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 2012, 4, 3624-3627.

[13]. Morris, D. M.; Hussey, B. K.; Geurin, S. L.; Selinger, K. A. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 1995, 14, 191-201.

[14]. Stubbs, R. J.; Harker, J. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Appl. 1995, 670, 279-285.

[15]. Boonyapiwat, B.; Steventon, G. B.; Sarisuta, N. Ma, Y. Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 2011, 73, 564-568.

[16]. Reddy, R. Y.; Harika, K. S. L.; Sowjanya, S.; Swathi, E.; Soujanya, B.; Reddy, S. S. Int. J. PharmTech. Res. 2011, 3, 180-186.

[17]. Skrzypek, S. Electroanalysis 2010, 22, 2339-2346.

[18]. Lindegardh, N.; Hanpithakpong, W.; Kamanikom, B.; Farrar, J.; Hien, T. T.; Singhasivanon, P.; White, N. J.; Day, N. P. Bioanalysis 2011, 3, 157-165.

[19]. Baughman, T. M.; Wright, W. L.; Hutton, K. A. J. Chromatogr. B: Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 2007, 852, 505-511.

[20]. Lindberg, R. H.; Fedorova, G.; Blum, K. M.; Pulit-Prociak, J.; Gillman, A.; Järhult, J.; Appelblad, P.; Söderström, H. Talanta 2015, 141, 164-169.

[21]. ICH Topic Q2 (R1), Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology, in: International Conference on Harmonization, November (2005). Available online: (accessed on 24 October 2017).

[22]. Bhirud, C. H.; Nandal, D. H. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 2016, 8, 249-256.

Supporting Agencies


Dimensions - Altmetric - scite_ - PlumX

Downloads and views


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...
License Terms

License Terms


Copyright © 2024 by Authors. This work is published and licensed by Atlanta Publishing House LLC, Atlanta, GA, USA. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial (CC BY NC) (International, v4.0) License ( By accessing the work, you hereby accept the Terms. This is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the CC BY NC License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited without any further permission from Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry). No use, distribution, or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Permissions for commercial use of this work beyond the scope of the License ( are administered by Atlanta Publishing House LLC (European Journal of Chemistry).