Vol 8, No 3 (2017)

September 2017

Table of Contents


Hakan Arslan
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.i-ii.1642
Editorial Board
Hakan Arslan
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.iii-vii.1643
Graphical Contents

Research Article

Mehwish Naz, Zareen Akhter, Ayesha Zaka, Bushra Mirza, Vickie McKee, Ehsan Ullah, Michael Bolte
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.195-202.1576

Recent work aimed at evaluating the possibility of enhancing biological activities by synthetically modifying bifunctional aldehyde structures. In this article, two series of bifunctional aldehydes were synthesized, structurally characterized (M-1A, M-1C and M-2A) using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Several pharmacological properties like cytotoxic, antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant and antitumor activities were also evaluated. In addition, bifunctional aldehyde-DNA interaction assay was examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy which revealed the DNA damaging behaviour of these aldehydes. The results of UV-Vis spectroscopy were supported by DNA damaging assay. The overall results reveal that bifunctional aldehyde moiety could be used as potential drug candidates.

Fawzia Ahmed Ibrahim, Mary Elias Kamel Wahba, Galal Magdy Galal
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.203-210.1574

Two new and simple spectrophotometric procedures have been proposed and validated for estimation of two important macrolide antibiotics namely, azithromycin dihydrate and roxithromycin. Method I depends on complex formation between any of the two drugs and copper in acidic medium where the absorbances of the produced complexes are measured at 250 and 264 nm with linearity ranges of 1.0-100.0 and 2.0-130.0 µg/mL for the two drugs, respectively. Method II depends on the reaction of these drugs with N-bromosuccinimide forming a product which is yellow colored, measured at 264 and 278 nm, with linearity ranges of 2.0-140.0 and 3.0-160.0 µg/mL for azithromycin dihydrate and roxithromycin, respectively. The proposed methods were subjected to detailed validation procedure; moreover they were used for the estimation of the concerned drugs in their different dosage forms. Study of the reactions stoichiometry was carried out; furthermore, a reaction mechanism proposal was presented.

Ahmet Ozan Gezerman
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.211-217.1577

The aim of the present study is to limit the detonation properties of ammonimum nitrate fertilizers used in agriculture. The results presented in this paper are obtained by using analytical methods. This study also evaluated the physiochemical properties of nitrogenous fertilizers such as the specific heat, explosive enthalpy, and the effects of dolomite and fly ash additives that have been suggested for increasing the nutritional content of ammonium nitrate fertilizers. The results obtained regarding additives differ from those of previous studies. The present study produced important results regarding additives, and efforts were made to limit certain physical properties such as the detonation enthalpy and detonation velocity.

Adil Ali Al-Fregi, Haider Abdul-Sattar Jaid, Hassan Thamir Abdulsahib
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.218-223.1578

A new series of organotellurium compounds based on quinoline were prepared by the reaction of 8-(quinolyl)mercuric chloride (1) with tellurium tetrabromide in 1:1 and 1:2 mole ratio in dry dioxane to obtain 8-(quinolyl)tellurium tribromide (2) and bis[8-(quinolyl)]tellurium dibromide (3), respectively, in good yields. Reaction of compounds 2 and 3 by ethanolic hydrazine hydrate gave bis[8-(quinolyl)]ditelluride (4) and bis[8-(quinolyl)]telluride (5), respectively, in moderate yields. Furthermore, the ligand properties of bis[8-(quinolyl)] telluride (5) will be carried out with K2PtCl4, Na2PdCl4 and RhCl3.3H2O. All compounds were characterized by spectroscopic data and elemental analysis.

Sohail Saeed, Nasir Khan, Ray Butcher, Naghmana Rashid
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.224-228.1569

Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (CVD) is a sophisticated, unique and modern technique which is used to deposit coatings, films, and other related structures from thermally unstable or the involatile precursors at laboratory and large scale productions. A light weight semiconducting and ceramic oxide based coatings on appropriate substrates can be produced at a lower cost by employing chemical vapour deposition method. There is broader choice of chemical precursors and their availability for obtaining high quality thin films at lower cost and the reaction environment is more flexible ranging from low pressure to atmospheric pressure in CVD. New ferrocene containingheterobimetallic precursor, [C58H80Fe2O4Sn2] has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and molecular structure was determined by X-ray single crystal analysis. The heterobimetallic complex was used as a single-source precursor for the growth of iron tin oxide thin film by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition. The deposited thin film was characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques. The average roughness of deposited film at 425 °C from heterobimetallic precursor was in the range of 4.39 nm. The deposited thin film on glass strip was found to have no cracks, excellent adhesion and to be crystalline in nature and free from any carboneous impurities.

Mushtaq Jerri Meften
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.229-239.1589

To inhibit corrosion of the mild steel Q235 type in cooling water systems, two heterocyclic compounds were used, namely (3-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-5-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-(4-((4-nitrophenyl)diazennyl)phenyl)dihydro-2H-pyrrolo[3,4-d]isoxazole-4,6(5H,6aH)-dione) (A1), and (5-(4-(1,3,5-dithiazinan-5-yl)phenyl)-5-pentyl-1,3,5-dithiazinan-5-ium (A2). They were experimentally evaluated by weight loss method at deference concentrations from 1×10-1 M to 1×10-5 M at 5 hours, and theoretically through thermodynamic functions, such as activation energy, standard free energy of adsorption, enthalpy of adsorption and entropy of adsorption. On the other hand, they were theoretically studied through quantum chemistry, such as quantum parameters including Highest occupied molecular orbital )HOMO( energy, Lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy, energy gap, dipole moment, chemical potential, ΔEBack-donation, global hardness, global softness, global electrophilicity index, ionization potential, electro negativity and number of transferred electrons. The temperature effect on the corrosion rate has been studied at 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65 °C, and the adsorption for studied inhibitors on mild steel surface obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The methods of compounds preparation A1 and A2 are different from each other, A1 was prepared through several steps, and A2 through the domino reaction (by two step). The results indicate that the studied inhibitors exhibit good performance as an inhibitors for mild steel corrosion in cooling water systems, and inhibition efficiency increasing with increase inhibitors concentration and decreased with temperature rise.

Ibrahim Ali Radini, Hany Mostafa Hamed, Mohammed Abdo Yahya Kharir, Ashraf Hassan Fekry Abd Elwahab
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.240-247.1599

Synthesis of several new of benzochromenes (4-7), benzochromenopyrimidines (8 and 9), 14-(4-chlorophenyl)-12-(phenyldiazenyl)-14H-benzo[7,8]chromeno[3,2-e][1, 2, 4]triazolo[1, 5-c]pyrimidines, 4-amino-16-(4-chlorophenyl)-14-(phenyldiazenyl)-16H-benzo[7', 8']chro-meno[2',3':4,5]pyrimido[1,6-b][1,2,4]triazepine-3-carbonitrile (10a-e, 13) and 9-(benz-ylideneamino)-7-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(phenyldiazenyl)-7, 9-dihydro-8H-benzo[7,8]chromeno [2,3-d]pyrimidin-8-imine (12), form starting from 2-amino-4-(p-chlorophenyl)-6-phenyl-diazenyl-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile (3). The structure of these new compounds was confirmed using IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR as well as MS spectroscopy. The structure activity relationship studies of the target compounds in agreement with the in vitro essays and confirmed higher potent antimicrobial activity against some of the tested microorganisms. The structure-activity relationship study revealed that the antimicrobial activity of benzochromenopyrimido triazepine nucleus was more beneficial than benzochromeno-triazolopyrimidine nucleus for antimicrobial activity.

Modou Lo, Andrea Martínez, Hugo Santalla, Fátima Garrido, Aliou Hamady Barry, Mohamed Gaye
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.248-251.1602

The crystal of the title compound, C21H36O3 contains an oxolane ring, and six defined stereocenters which are unambigously established by the crystallography study. A three dimensional supramolecular architecture is ensured by hydrogen bonds from the hydroxy group which is both engaged in inter (O-H···O2) and intramolecular C-H···O-H) hydrogen bonds. Weak C-H···O=C hydrogen bonds are involved also into the consolidation of the network.

Jabbar Saleh Hadi, Zuhair Ali Abdulnabi, Adil Muala Dhumad
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.252-257.1598

Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) metal complexes were obtained by using ligand (2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-5-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole) derived from 4-methyl-1,2-phenelyenediamine and indole-3-carboxaldehyde. The ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, Mass Spectrometry, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, TG and molar conductance measure-ments. The non-electrolytic behaviour of complexes is confirmed by low molar conductance value. The presence of lattice and coordinated water molecules is confirmed by thermal analysis. Thermodynamic parameters (E, ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) were calculated by using Coats-Redfern method. The density function theory (DFT) calculation at the B3LYP/LanL2DZ method with 6-311+G(d,p) basis set are used to investigate the electronic structure of the ligand and their complexes with Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) metals. HOMO-LUMO energies of the mentioned compounds have been computed by using DFT/B3LYP calculation method with 6-311+G(d,p) basis set and LanL2DZ basis set for Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) metal complexes. Mulliken charge distributions of the investigated compounds were also computed with same level of method.

Nagaraju Pappula, Balaji Kodali, Peda Varma Datla
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.258-264.1596

Ulipristal acetate is a new synthetic selective progesterone receptor modulator developed mainly as emergency contraceptive (EC) and also used for the treatment of uterine fibroids. A cost effective, sensitive, simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the analysis of ulipristal acetate in human plasma. Following liquid-liquid extraction, the analyte (Ulipristal acetate) and internal standard (Levonorgestrel) were chromatographed using mobile phase in an isocratic elution mode on a reverse phase C18 column. The LC-MS/MS operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode for respective [M+H]+ ions, m/z 476.2/134.1 for analyte and 313.3/245.1 for internal standard. The assay exhibited linear dynamic range of 1-300 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL with relative standard deviation of 7.0%. The intra-batch and inter-batch results were precise with coefficient variation of 2.7 to 7.0 (%) and accuracy of 94.2-99.8 (%). The validated method was simple, fast and repeatable for bioequivalence, pharmacokinetic and therapeutic monitoring studies.

Ahmed Shawky Abouzaid, Maissa Yacoub Salem, Eman Saad Elzanfaly, Ahmed Emad El Gindy, Stephen Hoag, Ahmed Ibrahim
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.265-272.1608

The fluid bed granulation (FBG) is a wet granulation technique for producing granules. It is a complex process because many process variables can influence the granule properties. Therefore, an understanding of the influence of the granulation process variables is necessary for controlling the process. The moisture content of granule also plays a critical role in determining the outcome of the batch. The purpose of this work was to apply Plackett-Burman design for screening of process variables in FBG, study the influence of the process variables on granules properties and the use of NIR spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS) regression to predict the moisture content of the granules. In order to study the influence of the process variables on the granules properties, Plackett-Burman design with six factors, two levels and three replicates at the center point (15 runs) was used. The results revealed that the atomizing pressure and the airflow rate are the process variables that have strong influence on the granules properties. The NIR spectroscopy in conjunction with PLS was used to determine the moisture content of granule in the FBG. The proposed PLS model was fitted and its predictive performance was evaluated by traditional chemometric criteria. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 4.15% with 2 latent variables (LVs). The proposed NIR method was validated and the results obtained were compared with those of the reference LOD method using a paired t-test.

Farah Samih Zeitouni, Jinane Kamal Chaaban, Ramzi Kassem Hamed
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.273-278.1609

The study of the kinetic aquation of chloropentaammine cobalt(III) ion in the presence of different types of dicarboxylate solutions (Malonate, malate, tartarate and succinate), in mixed solvent media of water with tert-butanol (30%, v:v) is investigated spectrophoto-metrically at different temperatures (30-60 °C) in the light of the effects of ion-pairing on reaction rates and mechanism. Comparison of the kip (Rate constant of ion-pairing) values with respect of different buffers (Malonate, malate, tartarate and succinate) at 30% of tert-butanol is introduced. Examination of the linear free energy relationship (LFER) at the mentioned conditions will lead to diagnosethe mechanism. The free energy of activation ΔG*ip is more or less linearly varied among the studied dicarboxylate ion-pairing ligands indicating the presence of compensation effect between ΔH*ip and ΔS*ip.

Rafael Alberto Fonseca-Correa, Marlon Jose Bastidas-Barranco, Liliana Giraldo, Juan Carlos Moreno-Piraján
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.279-287.1593

Eight samples of carbon aerogels were prepared at various resorcinol/catalytic (R/C) ratios (ranging from 25 to 1500) and followed the changes in structure after pyrolysis. Isotherms of N2 to 77 K were determined to calculate the textural parameters using Dubinin-Astakhov (DA), Barret Joyner and Halenda (BJH), Non-Local Density Functional Theory (NLDFT) and Quenched Solid Density Functional Theory (QSDFT) models. The results generated two series of samples. In series I, a single type of pores developed (microporous, at low R/C weight ratio). Series II developed mesoporosity to top gears of R/C (> 400). The specific areas ranged from 64 to 990 m2/g. Additional models were applied to the materials synthesized, which allowed for adjustment to a system of “cylinder-slit” pores by applying the QSDFT kernel, with an error percentage ranging from 0.03 to 0.74.

Muthana Abduljabbar Shanshal, Qhatan Adnan Yusuf
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.288-292.1561

The ab-initio DFT (B3LYP) method is applied for the study of C-C and C-H bond cleavage reactions in chrysene and perylene aromatic molecules. It is found that, the C-C bond cleavage proceeds via a singlet aromatic transition state, compelled through a disrotatoric ring opening reaction. A suprafacial H atom shift follows the transition state in some of these reactions, where the formation of a methylene -CH2,acetylenyl-, allenyl- or butadienyl- moiety in the final product is possible. Activation energies are calculated for the ring opening and show the following values; for chrysene, 136.97-197.69 kcal/mol and for perylene, 160.87-187.33 kcal/mol. The reaction energies range from 95.57-162.42 kcal/mol for chrysene and 98.12-168.28 kcal/mol for perylene. The calculated cleavage reaction energies for all C-H bonds in both molecules are almost similar, 116-117 kcal/mol. Their activation energies however are different, for chrysene they range from 148.57-154.97 kcal/mol and for perylene 148.30-162.73 kcal/mol.

Liliana Giraldo, Marlon Bastidas-Barranco, Pablo Húmpola, Juan Carlos Moreno-Piraján
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.293-304.1603

In this work, the adsorption characteristics of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs: MOF-199 and ZIF-8) with two different types of structure were analyzed. MOF-199 consists of copper-based metal clusters while the ZIF-8 consists of organic molecules interlaced with zinc atoms and these have octahedral morphology and typical rhombic dodecahedron shape, respectively. The results of phenol (Ph) and p-nitro phenol (PNP) adsorption capacity from aqueous solution show that MOF-199 has a higher adsorption capacity: Ph 79.55% and PNP 89.3%, while for ZIF-8 the adsorption capacity was Ph 65.5% and PNP 77.0%. Adsorption of phenols was fit to Langmuir, Sips and Redlich-Peterson models and kinetics by pseudo-second order. Gibbs free energy (ΔG°) shows that adsorption processes studied are spontaneous.

Mahmood Payehghadr
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.305-309.1587

A simple, reliable and rapid method for pre-concentration and determination of ultra-trace zinc using octadecyl silica membrane disk modified by a new Schiff base ligand, and flame atomic absorption spectrometry is presented. Various parameters including, pH of aqueous solution, flow rates, the amount of ligand and type of stripping solvents were optimized. The breakthrough volume is greater than 1000 mL with an enrichment factor of more than 200 and 120 ng/Ldetection limit. The capacity of the membrane disks modified by 8 mg of the ligand was found to be 260 µg of zinc. The effects of various cationic interferences on percent recovery of zinc ion were studied. The method was successfully applied for the determination of zinc ion in different samples, especially determination of ultra-trace amount of zinc in waters and plants.

Habibi Belhassen, Ibtissem Ghorbel-Abid, Lahsini Rim
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.310-313.1610

Metronidazole antibiotic is a medication once discharged into the water after use, can react with living organisms and causing adverse effects to their lives. This kind of contaminant must be removed from wastewater and the technique adopted in this work is the liquid-solid adsorption method. The removal of metronidazole in aqueous solutions is carried out on powdered activated carbon. Different parameters such as solid/liquid ratio, temperature, pH, concentration, and contact time influencing this adsorption are examined. The Langmuir isotherm appears the most satisfactory is best suited for modeling the adsorption of metronidazole. In addition, the pH and the temperature do not seem to have any noticeable effect on the adsorption of metronidazole. The experimental results showed that metronidazole was removed at 64% for concentration of 50 mg/L for contact time of 20 min.


Short Communication

Ya Wei Cao, Xiao Liang Li, Yong Wu He
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.314-316.1579

In this paper, a high selective fluorescent sensor for nickel ion based on boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) has been studied. Upon addition of Ni(II) ion, the fluorescence of sensor (compound 1) would be quenched, and the selectivity towards Ni(II) ion over Ag(I), Cd(II), Cu(II), Fe(III), Hg(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II)is good in acetonitrile, there is almost no interference from other heavy metal ions. The stoichiometry of complexation for compound 1 with Ni(II) ion is 1:1, and the quenching process could be reversed by triethanolamine.

Satish Uttamrao Deshmukh, Kiran Ramesh Kharat, Gajanan Gulabrao Kadam, Rajendra Pundlikrao Pawar
DOI 10.5155/eurjchem.8.3.317-320.1586

2,3‐Dihydroquinazolin‐4(1H)‐one derivatives (3a-p) were synthesized in excellent yields. These compounds were screened for antiproliferative activity against A549 cells and were found as potent cytotoxicity. Compounds A4, A8, A10 found to be more promising antiproliferative against the lung carcinoma A549 cells. IC50 values for compounds A4, A8 and A10 were found to be 8.6, 8.9 and 8.1 μg/L against A549 cells, respectively.